Boulder/Longmont Computer Repair – PC with no hard drive used

Longmont Colorado PC Computer not using it’s hard drive:

Computer Physicians, LLC  just worked on a unusual situation on a Zotac mini PC computer in Longmont, CO that had a boot windows drive that was filled up.  I thought this would be good to share with my readers:

This very small Zotac mini PC computer running Windows 10 home with 4GB of RAM was booting to a 64GB memory chip located on the motherboard and was not using the 300GB internal SATA hard drive.  As a result since the Windows OS was on a small 64GB memory chip it quickly got filled to capacity.  I backed up the customer’s data to an external hard drive.   The internal hard drive was not being used except for the storing of a few small files.   I could not clone the 64GB memory chip but was able to transfer the OS using special disk software.  I then needed to go into the BIOS and set the boot drive to the internal drive.  The computer is running  slower now since it is not using the small 64GB memory chip for windows and the CPU and computer itself is an inexpensive under-powered computer which was designed to run on the 64GB memory chip. The problem with this design is that the 64GB memory chip quickly gets filled to capacity.  (Windows 10 uses a lot of hard drive memory most systems have 1000GB or more)

I do not like this design and would not recommend this Zotac computer to a client.

The computer will run faster if the original drive is replaced with a solid state drive and if the OS can be transferred and if more RAM memory is installed.

These are some of the situations that Computer Physicians, LLC runs into.

-Steve

Longmont’s Computer Physicians Computer Service and Repair in Longmont Colorado

Computer Physicians, LLC is a computer service company in Longmont, CO in business since 1999.

Longmont Computer Repair Data Recovery in Boulder Erie Denver Colorado Networking PC services help virus removal training

We provide computer repair and other services onsite at your location for same day service or in our workshop for the lowest cost in the area.

We also provide: Computer training, tutoring, help, upgrades, computer systems, rentals, sales, troubleshooting, performance improvement, cyber security, virus removal, networking, website development and hosting, internet setup, router and switch install and we can use our 1gbps upload and download internet service connection at our office for any fast internet needs you have.  We are experts at Data Recovery of lost data and PC system crash recovery. We also develop, program and create Song Director and NameBase database software.

Computer Physicians services the entire Colorado front range. Our main technician and president is CompTia A+, MCP, MTA Microsoft certified professional with many college degrees in computers.

Call us today for any of your computer needs.

Longmont’s Newest Computer Viruses – Longmont/Boulder CO – Computer Physicians

Computer Repair Longmont, CO Virus removal. – Computer Physicians, LLC

Here is some news about the latest computer viruses out today that Computer Physicians in Longmont/Boulder, CO can help you with:

Technewsworld:

A new ransomware exploit dubbed “Petya” struck major companies and infrastructure sites this July 2017, following last month’s WannaCry ransomware attack, which wreaked havoc on more than 300,000 computers across the globe. Petya is believed to be linked to the same set of hacking tools as WannaCry.

Petya already has taken thousands of computers hostage, impacting companies and installations ranging from Ukraine to the U.S. to India. It has impacted a Ukrainian international airport, and multinational shipping, legal and advertising firms. It has led to the shutdown of radiation monitoring systems at the Chernobyl nuclear facility.

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Trends in PC technology – Computer Physicians Longmont/Boulder/Erie, CO

 https://www.computer-physicians.com/
Computer repair data recovery networking virus removal in Longmont/Boulder/Denver Colorado

 Here is a good article which talks about the changes in PC technology and the trends.

Past, Present and Future Trends in the Use
of Computers in Fisheries Research By
Bernard A. Megrey and Erlend Moksness
1.2 Hardware Advances
It is difficult not to marvel at how quickly computer technology advances. The
current typical desktop or laptop computer, compared to the original mono-
chrome 8 KB random access memory (RAM), 4 MHz 8088 microcomputer or
the original Apple II, has improved several orders of magnitude in many areas.
The most notable of these hardware advances are processing capability,
color graphics resolution and display technology, hard disk storage, and the
amount of RAM. The most remarkable thing is that since 1982, the cost of a
high-end microcomputer system has remained in the neighborhood of $US
3,000. This statement was true in 1982, at the printing of the last edition of
this book in 1996, and it holds true today.
1.2.1 CPUs and RAM
While we can recognize that computer technology changes quickly, this state-
ment does not seem to adequately describe what sometimes seems to be the
breakneck pace of improvements in the heart of any electronic computing
engine, the central processing unit (CPU). The transistor, invented at Bell
Labs in 1947, is the fundamental electronic component of the CPU chip. Higher
performance CPUs require more logic circuitry, and this is reflected in steadily
rising transistor densities. Simply put, the number of transistors in a CPU is a
rough measure of its computational power which is usually measured in floating
point mathematical operations per second (FLOPS). The more transistors there
are in the CPU, or silicon engine, the more work it can do.
Trends in transistor density over time, reveal that density typically doubles
approximately every year and a half according to a well know axiom known as
Moore’s Law. This proposition, suggested by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore
(Moore 1965), was part observation and part marketing prophesy. In 1965
Moore, then director of R&D at Fairchild Semiconductor, the first large-scale
producer of commercial integrated circuits, wrote an internal paper in which he
drew a line though five points representing the number of components per
integrated circuit for minimum cost for the components developed between
1959 and 1964
The prediction arising
from this observation became a self-fulfilling prophecy that emerged as one of
the driving principals of the semiconductor industry. As it related to computer
CPUs (one type of integrated circuit), Moore’s Law states that the number of
transistors packed into a CPU doubles every 18–24 months.
Figure 1.1 supports this claim. In 1979, the 8088 CPU had 29,000 transistors.
In 1997, the Pentium II had 7.5 million transistors, in 2000 the Pentium 4 had
420 million, and the trend continues so that in 2007, the Dual-Core Itanium 2
processor has 1.7 billion transistors. In addition to transistor density, data
1 Past, Present and Future Trends in the Use of Computers
) of CPU
performance. Note y-axis is on the log scale (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teraflop,
accessed 12 January 2008)
1 Past, Present and Future Trends in the Use of Computers
5
Manufacturing technology appears to be reaching its limits in terms of how
dense silicon chips can be manufactured – in other words, how many transistors
can fit onto CPU chips and how fast their internal clocks can be run. As stated
recently in the BBC News, ‘‘The industry now believes that we are approaching
the limits of what classical technology – cla
ssical being as refined over the last 40
years – can do.’’ There is a problem with making microprocessor
circuitry smaller. Power leaks, the unwan
ted leakage of electricity or electrons
between circuits packed ever closer toget
her, take place. Overheating becomes a
problem as processor architecture gets ever smaller and clock speeds increase.
Traditional processors have one processing engine on a chip. One method
used to increase performance through higher transistor densities, without
increasing clock speed, is to put more than one CPU on a chip and to allow
them to independently operate on different tasks (called threads). These
advanced chips are called multiple-core processors. A dual-core processor
squeezes two CPU engines onto a single chip. Quad-core processors have four
engines. Multiple-core chips are all 64-bit meaning that they can work through
64 bits of data per instruction. That is twice rate of the current standard 32-bit
processor. A dual-core processor theoretically doubles your computing power
since a dual-core processor can handle two threads of data simultaneously. The
result is there is less waiting for tasks to complete. A quad-core chip can handle
four threads of data.
Progress marches on. Intel announced in February 2007 that it had a
prototype CPU that contains 80 processor cores and is capable of 1 teraflop
(10
12
floating point operations per second) of processing capacity. The potential
uses of a desktop fingernail-sized 80-core chip with supercomputer-like perfor-
mance will open unimaginable opportunities (Source: http://www.intel.com/
pressroom/archive/releases/20070204comp.htm, accessed 12 January 2008).
As if multiple core CPUs were not powerful enough, new products being
developed will feature ‘‘dynamically scalable’’ architecture, meaning that vir-
tually every part of the processor – including cores, cache, threads, interfaces,
and power – can be dynamically allocated based on performance, power and
thermal requirements.
Supercomputers may
soon be the same size as a laptop if IBM brings to the market silicon nanopho-
tonics. In this new technology, wires on a chip are replaced with pulses of light
on tiny optical fibers for quicker and more power-efficient data transfers
between processor cores on a chip. This new technology is about 100 times
faster, consumes one-tenth as much power, and generates less heat (
Multi-core processors pack a lot of power. There is just one problem: most
software programs are lagging behind hardware improvements. To get the most
out of a 64-bit processor, you need an operating system and application
programs that support it. Unfortunately, as of the time of this writing, most
software applications and operating systems are not written to take advantage
of the power made available with multiple cores. Slowly this will change.
Currently there are 64-bit versions of Linux, Solaris, and Windows XP, and
Vista. However, 64-bit versions of most device drivers are not available, so for
today’s uses, a 64-bit operating system can become frustrating due to a lack of
available drivers.
Another current developing trend is building high performance computing
environments using computer clusters, which are groups of loosely coupled
computers, typically connected together through fast local area networks.
A cluster works together so that multiple processors can be used as though
they are a single computer. Clusters are usually deployed to improve perfor-
mance over that provided by a single computer, while typically being much less
expensive than single computers of comparable speed or availability.
Beowulf is a design for high-performance parallel computing clusters using
inexpensive personal computer hardware. It was originally developed by
NASA’s Thomas Sterling and Donald Becker. The name comes from the
main character in the Old English epic poem Beowulf.
A Beowulf cluster of workstations is a group of usually identical PC com-
puters, configured into a multi-computer architecture, running a Open Source
Unix-like operating system, such as BSD or
Solaris They are joined into a small network and have libraries and
programs installed that allow processing to be shared among them. The server
node controls the whole cluster and serves files to the client nodes. It is also the
cluster’s console and gateway to the outside world. Large Beowulf machines
might have more than one server node, and possibly other nodes dedicated to
particular tasks, for example consoles or monitoring stations. Nodes are con-
figured and controlled by the server node, and do only what they are told to do
in a disk-less client configuration.
There is no particular piece of software that defines a cluster as a Beowulf.
Commonly used parallel processing libraries include Message Passing Interface;
(Both of these permit the programmer to divide a task among a group of
networked computers, and recollect the results of processing. Software must
be revised to take advantage of the cluster. Specifically, it must be capable of
performing multiple independent parallel operations that can be distributed
among the available processors. Microsoft also distributes a Windows Compute
Cluster Server 2003 (Source: http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/ccs/
default.aspx, accessed 12 January 2008) to facilitate building a high-performance
computing resource based on Microsoft’s Windows platforms.
One of the main differences between Beowulf and a cluster of workstations is
that Beowulf behaves more like a single machine rather than many worksta-
tions.
Past, Present and Future Trends in the Use of Computers
CPU + memory package which can be plugged into the
cluster, just like a CPU or memory module can be plugged into a motherboard.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf_(computing), accessed 12 January
2008). Beowulf systems are now deployed worldwide, chiefly in support of
scientific computing and their use in fisheries applications is increasing. Typical
configurations consist of multiple machines built on AMD’s Opteron 64-bit
and/or Athlon X2 64-bit processors.
Memory is the most readily accessible large-volume storage available to the
CPU. We expect that standard RAM configurations will continue to increase as
operating systems and application software become more full-featured and
demanding of RAM. For example, the ‘‘recommended’’ configuration for
Windows Vista Home Premium Edition and Apple’s new Leopard operating
systems is 2 GB of RAM, 1 GB to hold the operating system leaving 1 GB for
data and application code. In the previous edition, we predicted that in 3–5
years (1999–2001) 64–256 megabytes (MB) of Dynamic RAM will be available
and machines with 64 MB of RAM will be typical. This prediction was incred-
ibly inaccurate. Over the years, advances in semiconductor fabrication technol-
ogy have made gigabyte memory configurations not only a reality, but
commonplace.
Not all RAM performs equally. Newer types, called double data rate RAM
(DDR) decrease the time in takes for the CPU to communicate with memory,
thus speeding up computer execution. DDR comes in several flavors. DDR has
been around since 2000 and is sometimes called DDR1. DDR2 was introduced
in 2003. It took a while for DDR2 to reach widespread use, but you can find it in
most new computers today. DDR3 began appearing in mid-2007. RAM simply
holds data for the processor. However, there is a cache between the processor
and the RAM: the L2 cache. The processor sends data to this cache. When the
cache overflows, data are sent to the RAM. The RAM sends data back to the L2
cache when the processor needs it. DDR RAM transfers data twice per clock
cycle. The clock rate, measured in cycles per second, or hertz, is the rate at which
operations are performed. DDR clock speeds range between 200 MHz (DDR-
200) and 400 MHz (DDR-400). DDR-200 transfers 1,600 megabits per second
(Mb s) while DDR-400 transfers 3,200 MB s

DDR2 RAM is
twice as fast as DDR RAM. The bus carrying data to DDR2 memory is twice as
fast. That means twice as much data are carried to the module for each clock
cycle. DDR2 RAM also consumes less power than DDR RAM. DDR2 speeds
range between 400 MHz (DDR2-400) and 800 MHz (DDR2-800). DDR2-400
transfers 3,200 MB s

1
. DDR2-800 transfers 6,400 MB s

1
.DDR3RAM
is twice as fast as DDR2 RAM, at least in theory. DDR3 RAM is more power-
efficient than DDR2 RAM. DDR3 speeds range between 800 MHz (DDR3-800)
and 1,600 MHz (DDR3-1600). DDR3-800 transfers 6,400 MB s

1
;DDR3-1600
transfers 12,800 MB s

1
.
As processors increased in performance, the addressable memory space also
increased as the chips evolved from 8-bit to 64-bit. Bytes of data readily
8
B.A. Megrey and E. Moksness
accessible to the processor are identified by a memory address, which by
convention starts at zero and ranges to the upper limit addressable by the pro-
cessor. A 32-bit processor typically uses memory addresses that are 32 bits wide.
The 32-bit wide address allows the processor to address 2
32
bytes (B) of memory,
which is exactly 4,294,967,296 B, or 4 GB. Desktop machines with a gigabyte of
memory are common, and boxes configured with 4 GB of physical memory are
easily available. While 4 GB may seem like a lot of memory, many scientific
databases have indices that are larger. A 64-bit wide address theoretically allows
18 million terabytes of addressable memory (1.8 10
19
B). Realistically 64-bit
systems will typically access approximately 64 GB of memory in the next 5 years.
1.2.2 Hard Disks and Other Storage Media
Improvements in hard disk storage, since our last edition, have advanced as well.
One of the most amazing things about hard disks is that they both change and
don’t change more than most other components. The basic design of today’s
hard disks is not very different from the original 5¼’’ 10 MB hard disk that was
installed in the first IBM PC/XTs in the early 1980s. However, in terms of
capacity, storage, reliability and other characteristics, hard drives have substan-
tially improved, perhaps more than any other PC component behind the CPU.
Seagate, a major hard drive manufacturer, estimates that drive capacity increases
by roughly 60% per year (Source: http://news.zdnet.co.uk/communications/
0,100,0000085,2067661,00.htm, accessed 12 January 2008).
Some of the trends in various important hard disk characteristics (Source:
http://www.PCGuide.com, accessed 12 January 2008) are described below. The
areal density of data on hard disk platters continues to increase at an amazing
rate even exceeding some of the optimistic predictions of a few years ago.
Densities are now approaching 100 Gbits in

2
, and modern disks are now packing
as much as 75 GB of data onto a single 3.5 in platter (Source: http://www.
fujitsu.com/downloads/MAG/vol42-1/paper08.pdf, accessed 12 January 2008).
Hard disk capacity continues to not only increase, but increase at an accelerat-
ing rate. The rate of technology development, measured in data areal density
growth is about twice that of Moore’s law for semiconductor transistor
density (Source: http://www.tomcoughlin.com/Techpapers/head&medium.pdf,
accessed 12 January 2008).
The trend towards larger and larger capacity drives will continue for both
desktops and laptops. We have progressed from 10 MB in 1981 to well over
10 GB in 2000. Multiple terabyte (1,000 GB) drives are already available. Today
the standard for most off the shelf laptops is around 120–160 GB. There is also a
move to faster and faster spindle speeds. Since increasing the spindle speed
improves both random-access and sequential performance, this is likely to
continue. Once the domain of high-end SCSI drives (Small Computer System
Interface), 7,200 RPM spindles are now standard on mainstream desktop and
1 Past, Present and Future Trends in the Use of Computers
9
notebook hard drives, and a 10,000 and 15,000 RPM models are beginning to
appear. The trend in size or form factor is downward: to smaller and smaller
drives. 5.25 in drives have now all but disappeared from the mainstream PC
market, with 3.5 in drives dominating the desktop and server segment. In the
mobile world, 2.5 in drives are the standard with smaller sizes becoming more
prevalent. IBM in 1999 announced its
Microdrive
which is a tiny 1 GB or device
only an inch in diameter and less than 0.25 in thick. It can hold the equivalent of
700 floppy disks in a package as small as 24.2 mm in diameter. Desktop and
server drives have transitioned to the 2.5 in form factor as well, where they are
used widely in network devices such as storage hubs and routers, blade servers,
small form factor network servers and RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpen-
sive Disks) subsystems. Small 2.5 in form factor (i.e. ‘‘portable’’) high perfor-
mance hard disks, with capacities around 250 GB, and using the USB 2.0
interface are becoming common and easily affordable. The primary reasons
for this ‘‘shrinking trend’’ include the enhanced rigidity of smaller platters.
Reduction in platter mass enables faster spin speeds and improved reliability
due to enhanced ease of manufacturing. Both positioning and transfer perfor-
mance factors are improving. The speed with which data can be pulled from the
disk is increasing more rapidly than positioning performance is improving,
suggesting that over the next few years addressing seek time and latency will
be the areas of greatest attention to hard disk engineers. The reliability of hard
disks is improving slowly as manufacturers refine their processes and add new
reliability-enhancing features, but this characteristic is not changing nearly as
rapidly as the others above. One reason is that the technology is constantly
changing, and the performance envelope is constantly being pushed; it’s much
harder to improve the reliability of a product when it is changing rapidly.
Once the province of high-end servers, the use of multiple disk arrays
(RAIDs) to improve performance and reliability is becoming increasingly
common, and multiple hard disks configured as an array are now frequently
seen in consumer desktop machines. Finally, the interface used to deliver data
from a hard disk has improved as well. Despite the introduction to the PC world
of new interfaces such as IEEE-1394 (FireWire) and USB (universal serial bus)
the mainstream interfaces in the PC world are the same as they were through the
1990s: IDE/ATA/SATA and SCSI. These interfaces are all going through
improvements. A new external SATA interface (eSATA) is capable of transfer
rates of 1.5–3.0 Gbits s

1
. USB transfers data at 480 Mbits s

1
and Firewire is
available in 400 and 800 Mbits s

1
. USB 3.0 has been announced and it will
offer speeds up to 4.8 Gbits s

1
. Firewire will also improve to increases in the
range of 3.2 Gbits s

1
. The interfaces will continue to create new and improved
standards with higher data transfer rates to match the increase in performance
of the hard disks themselves.
In summary, since 1996, faster spindle speeds, smaller form factors, multiple
double-sided platters coated with higher density magnetic coatings, and
improved recording and data interface technologies, have substantially
increased hard disk storage and performance. At the same time, the price per unit of storage has decreased.

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https://www.computer-physicians.com/ in Longmont, Boulder, Erie, Denver, Colorado. Onsite at your location – we come to you! Onsite, in-shop or remote help.  Video about Computer Physicians:

 

Longmont Boulder Computer Repair PC service Virus removal, Data Recovery https://www.computer-physicians.com/ in Longmont, Boulder, Erie, Denver, Colorado.  Onsite at your location – we come to you! Onsite, in-shop or remote help.

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Boulder/Longmont Computer Repair – History of the Computer – Computer Physicians, LLC

Boulder/Longmont Computer Repair – History of the Computer – Computer Physicians, LLC  

Computer Physicians provides data recovery, computer troubleshooting, virus removal, networking and other computer fixes.

Here is a good article about the history of computers by marygrove.edu

History of the Computer

The history of the computer can be divided into six generations each of which was
marked by critical conceptual advances.
The Mechanical Era (1623-1945)
The idea of using machines to solve mathematical problems can be traced at least as
far back as the early 17th century, to mathematicians who designed and implemented
calculators that were capable of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Among the earliest of these was Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), German
philosopher and co-founder (with Newton) of the calculus. Leibniz proposed the idea
that mechanical calculators (as opposed to humans doing arithmetic) would function
fastest and most accurately using a base-two, that is, binary system.
Leibniz actually built a digital calculator and presented it to the scientific authorities
in Paris and London in 1673. His other great contribution to the development of the
modern computer was the insight that any proposition that could be expressed
logically could also be expressed as a calculation, “a general method by which all the
truths of the reason would be reduced to a kind of calculation” (Goldstine 1972).
Inherent in the argument is the principle that binary arithmetic and logic were in some
sense indistinguishable: zeroes and ones could as well be made to represent positive
and negative or true and false. In modern times this would result in the understanding
that computers were at the same time calculators and logic machines.
The first multi-purpose, i.e. programmable, computing device was probably Charles
Babbage’s Difference Engine, which was begun in 1823 but never completed. A more
ambitious machine was the Analytical Engine. It was designed in 1842, but
unfortunately it also was only partially completed by Babbage.
That the modern computer was actually capable of doing something other than
numerical calculations is probably to the credit of George Boole (1815-1864), to
whom Babbage, and his successors, were in deep debt. By showing that formal logic
could be reduced to an equation whose results could only be zero or one, he made it
possible for binary calculators to function as logic machines (Goldstine 1972).
First Generation Electronic Computers (1937–1953)
Three machines have been promoted at various times as the first electronic computers.
These machines used electronic switches, in the form of vacuum tubes, instead of
electromechanical relays. Electronic components had one major benefit, however:
they could “open” and “close” about 1,000 times faster than mechanical switches.
A second early electronic machine was Colossus, designed by Alan Turing for the
British military in 1943. This machine played an important role in breaking codes
used by the German army in World War II. Turing’s main contribution to the field of
computer science was the idea of the “Turing machine,” a mathematical formalism,
indebted to George Boole, concerning computable functions.
The machine could be envisioned as a binary calculator with a read/write head
inscribing the equivalent of zeroes and ones on a movable and indefinitely long tape.
2
The Turing machine held the far-reaching promise that any problem that could be
calculated could be calculated with such an “automaton,” and, picking up from
Leibniz, that any proposition that could be expressed logically could, likewise, be
expressed by such an “automaton.”
The first general purpose programmable electronic computer was the Electronic
Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), built by J. Presper Eckert and John V.
Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania. The machine wasn’t completed until 1945,
but then it was used extensively for calculations during the design of the hydrogen
bomb.
The successor of the ENIAC, the EDVAC project was significant as an example of
the power of interdisciplinary projects that characterize modern computational science.
By recognizing that functions, in the form of a sequence of instructions for a
computer, can be encoded as numbers, the EDVAC group knew the instructions could
be stored in the computer’s memory along with numerical data (a “von Neumann
Machine”).
The notion of using numbers to represent functions was a key step used by Gödel in
his incompleteness theorem in 1937, work with which von Neumann, as a logician,
was quite familiar. Von Neumann’s own role in the development of the modern digital
computer is profound and complex, having as much to do with brilliant administrative
leadership as with his foundation insight that the instructions for dealing with data,
that is, programming, and the data themselves, were both expressible in binary terms
to the computer, and in that sense indistinguishable one from the other. It is that
insight which laid the basis for the “von Neumann machine,” which remains the
principal architecture for most actual computers manufactured today.
Second Generation Computers (1954–1962)
The second generation saw several important developments at all levels of computer
system design, from the technology used to build the basic circuits to the
programming languages used to write scientific applications.
Memory technology was based on magnetic cores which could be accessed in random
order, as opposed to mercury delay lines, in which data was stored as an acoustic
wave that passed sequentially through the medium and could be accessed only when
the data moved by the I/O interface.
During this second generation many high level programming languages were
introduced, including FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL (1958), and COBOL (1959).
Important commercial machines of this era include the IBM 704 and its successors,
the 709 and 7094. The latter introduced I/O processors for better throughput between
I/O devices and main memory.
Third Generation Computers (1963–1972)
The third generation brought huge gains in computational power. Innovations in this
era include the use of integrated circuits, or ICs (semiconductor devices with several
transistors built into one physical component), semiconductor memories starting to be
used instead of magnetic cores, microprogramming as a technique for efficiently
designing complex processors, the coming of age of pipelining and other forms of
3
parallel processing, and the introduction of operating systems and time-sharing.
Fourth Generation Computers (1972–1984)
The next generation of computer systems saw the use of large scale integration (LSI —
1000 devices per chip) and very large scale integration (VLSI — 100,000 devices per
chip) in the construction of computing elements. At this scale entire processors will fit
onto a single chip, and for simple systems the entire computer (processor, main
memory, and I/O controllers) can fit on one chip. Gate delays dropped to about 1ns
per gate.
Two important events marked the early part of the third generation: the development
of the C programming language and the UNIX operating system, both at Bell Labs. In
1972, Dennis Ritchie, seeking to meet the design goals of CPL and generalize
Thompson’s B, developed the C language.
Fifth Generation Computers (1984–1990)
The development of the next generation of computer systems is characterized mainly
by the acceptance of parallel processing. The fifth generation saw the introduction of
machines with hundreds of processors that could all be working on different parts of a
single program. The scale of integration in semiconductors continued at an incredible
pace — by 1990 it was possible to build chips with a million components — and
semiconductor memories became standard on all computers.
Sixth Generation Computers (1990–)
Many of the developments in computer systems since 1990 reflect gradual
improvements over established systems, and thus it is hard to claim they represent a
transition to a new “generation”, but other developments will prove to be significant
changes.
One of the most dramatic changes in the sixth generation will be the explosive growth
of wide area networking. Network bandwidth has expanded tremendously in the last
few years and will continue to improve for the next several years.

Longmont/Boulder Computer Repair service & sales

Longmont Colorado Computer Repair with Computer Physicians

Computer Physicians provides high quality low cost computer repair, training, help, data recovery  on PC Windows and some Mac apple computers in Boulder Denver and Longmont, CO, and worldwide via the internet.

Here is a good article about computer topics questions and answers

COMPUTER REPAIR Questions and
Answers

Original link to the article is here:
1. What is a computer?
2. What are the different functions of a computer?
3. Draw the hierarchical classification of the computer.
4. How a minicomputer different from a mainframe?
5. What is Super computer?
6. Differentiate Input and Output device.
7. What is a storage device? What is the common
classification?
8. What do you mean by a processing device? What are the
various types of processing devices?
9. Differentiates Serial and Parallel port.
10. What is an interface?
11. What is a microprocessor?
12. What are the factors affecting the speed of the
microprocessor?
13. What are the differences between Multitasking and
Multiprocessing?
Multitasking- Enables the processor to do multiple programs
simultaneously by fast switching through the programs. Here
doesn’t have the involvement of multiple processors.
Multiprocessing- Enables the processor to do multiple
programs simultaneously by the use of multiple processors.
14. What the difference between FSB and BSB?
Front Side Bus. Another name for the system bus. The Front
Side Bus connects the CPU to main memory. A microprocessor
bus that connects the CPU to a Level 2 cache is called Back
Side Bus. Typically, a backside bus runs at a faster clock speed
than the Front Side Bus.

15. What is packaging a microprocessor? What are the
different packaging available?
Packaging is the process of connecting a microprocessor with a
computers motherboard. The types of microprocessor
packaging are;
a. PGA
b. SPGA
c. SECC
d. LGA

16. What is LGA ?
An LGA socket is the connection point for a central processing
unit (CPU. to fit into a motherboard. The LGA stands for Land
Grid Array.

17. What is CISC and RISC?
Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC. and Complex
Instruction Set Computer (CISC. are two philosophies by
which computer chips are designed. RISC became a popular
technology buzzword in the 1990s, and many processors used
in the enterprise business segment were RISC-based.

18. What is Intel Pentium?
The Intel Pentium is a series of microprocessors first
developed by the Intel Corporation. These types of processors
have been found in many personal computers since 1993.

19. Any difference between Pentium III and IV.
There have been a number of Pentium processor lines starting
with the base Pentium in 1993.The of the recent Pentium
entries are Pentium III and Pentium 4.
a. In a Pentium III processor, the bus speed is generally 133
MHz (although there were a few with 100 MHz). The lowest
bus speed on a Pentium IV is 400 MHz, and there are versions
with much higher speeds (topping at 1066 MHz for the
“extreme edition”).
b. The Pentium 4s are smaller than the Pentium IIIs
c. Pentium III processors had (for the most part. about 512 KB
of cache. Pentium 4 processors, on the other hand, start at 512
KB.

20. What are the differences between Intel Celeron and
Pentium family of Processors?
Celeron
According to Build Gaming Computers, Celeron processors are
the low-end processor intended for standard home computer
use. SciNet reports the best Celeron processor has an L2 Cache
of 128kb, a clock speed limit of about 2.0 GHz and runs at a
core voltage of 1.75V. These are useful numbers for
comparison.

Pentium
The top Pentium processor is the Pentium 4 Prescott. CPU
Scorecard reports it has an L2 cache of 1MB (1024kb), a
potential 3.0 GHz clock speed and runs at about 1.4V. The
lowest performing Pentium 4 processor, the Willamette, has

an L2 cache of 256kb, a potential 2.0 GHz clock speed and
runs at about 1.7V.

21. What is Hyper Threading? What is the use of it?
A thread of execution, or simply a “thread,” is one series of
instructions sent to the CPU. Hyper-threading is a technology
developed to help make better use of spare processing cycles.
Hyper-threaded processors have a duplicate set of registers,
small spaces of high-speed memory storage used to hold the
data that is currently needed to execute a thread. When a CPU
core is delayed, waiting for data to be retrieved from another
place in memory, it can use these duplicate registers to spend
the spare computation cycles executing a different thread. The
second set of registers will be pre-loaded with the data needed
to execute the second thread, so the CPU core can begin work
immediately

22. What is Intel Atom processor?
The Intel Atom family of processors are extremely small
central processing units (CPU. found mostly in ultraportable
devices, such as netbooks, cell phones and tablet PCs,
according to Intel. While small and light on energy use, Atom
processors can handle the most common tasks, such as email
and instant messaging.

23. What is Nehalem Architecture?
Nehalem is Intel’s new microprocessor architecture The Core
i7 chips were the first processors ever produced using an
architecture called Nehalem.

24. Which is a heavy-duty Microprocessor of Intel?
Intel Xeon.

25. Which is the processor suitable from Intel family of
processors for Server and Workstation?
Intel Xeon.

26. What is full name of AMD?

Advanced Micro Devices.

27. What are the latest Processor of Intel and AMD?
For intel it is Intel Core i7 and AMD Opteron 6200 Series
processor.

28. Write socket LGA 775 is apt for which type of Intel
Processors?
The top of the line for the LGA775 series CPU socket was the
Core 2 processor series, with the Core 2 Duo E8600, Core 2
Extreme QX9770 and Core 2 Quad Q9650 being the three top
performers

29. Socket 939 is developed by AMD. It supports a maximum
of how many bits of computing? What are the the different
processors of AMD is suitable for this socket?
AMD Athlon 64, AMD Athlon 64FX and AMD Athlon 64 X2.

30. Which type of socket is needed to connect a dual core
processor of Intel?
Socket LGA 775.

31. What is Heat Sink? What is its use? If it is not in the system
what will happen?
A heat sink is a component used to lower the temperature of a
device.It is most commonly there on the microprocessor. If it
is not properly fixed the system, the system will shutdown
automatically to prevent further damage to the processor.

32. A CPU fan should be placed in system. Why?
To make the system cool and more functioning.

33. What is Upgrading a microprocessor? Why we have to do
it?

34. Upgrading a microprocessor is just physically replacing a
processor with a new one. Before doing so we have to make
sure that the processor we want to use for your upgrade is
physically compatible with the socket on your computer’s
motherboard. We also have to make sure that the motherboard
has the internal logic to support the processor.

35. What are the causes of overheating of microprocessor?
a. Processor fan may not be properly connected.
b. Heat sink may be not contacted with the processor.
c. Jumpers may be configured to over clock the CPU.
d. Voltage supply incompatible

36. No Display. What is the problem?
a. CPU fan problem
b. Heat sink related issue
c. Power related issues
d. Improper Jumper settings

37. What is the use of Conventional memory in the system?
The size of conventional memory is 640KB. It is also called
DOS memory or Base memory. This memory is used by some
small programs like Word star, Lotus etc…DOS cannot use
more than 640KB.

38. What is main memory in a computer?
The main memory in a computer is called Random Access
Memory. It is also known as RAM. This is the part of the
computer that stores operating system software, software
applications and other information for the central processing
unit (CPU. to have fast and direct access when needed to
perform tasks.

39. What is Cache memory? What is the advantage if a
processor with more cache memory you are using?
Cache memory is the memory area between RAM and
Processor. If cache memory increases the speed of the system
will also improved.

40. What are the different types of RAM?
SRAM, DRAM, VRAM, SGRAM, DDR-SDRAM etc….

41. Differentiate SRAM and DRAM.
SRAM
Static RAM stores each bit of data on six metal oxide

semiconductor field effect transistors, or MOSFETs. SRAM is
used in devices that require the fastest possible data access
without requiring a high capacity. Some examples are CPU
caches and buses, hard drive and router buffers and printers.
DRAM
Dynamic RAM stores data using a paired transistor and
capacitor for each bit of data. Capacitors constantly leak
electricity, which requires the memory controller to refresh the
DRAM several times a second to maintain the data.

42. What are the different DRAM types?
FPMDRAM, EDO DRAM, SDRAM, RDRAM, DDR-SDRAM

43. What is the difference between DDR-I and DDR-II?
DDR2 is the successor to DDR RAM. DDR 2 incorporates
several technological upgrades to computer system memory,
as well as an enhanced data rate.DDR 2 is capable of achieving
twice the data transfer rate of DDR-I memory because of its
higher clock speed. It operates at a lower voltage than DDR-I
as well: 1.8 volts instead of 2.5.

44. Which is the latest DDR version? Which processor of Intel
will support it?
The latest DDR version is DDR-III. Intel’s all latest processors
such as Core i3,i5 and i7 will support it.

45. What are VRAM and SGRAM?
VRAM is Video Random Access Memory. Video adapter or
video system uses VRAM. VRAM is dual ported. It is costly.
But SGRAM is not dual ported and not costly. It is a less
expensive approach to graphics functions. Most commonly all
low cost graphics cards are using it.

46. What is SODIMM memory module?
Small outline dual in-line memory module (SODIMM or
SO-DIMM. is a type of random access memory (RAM). It is a
smaller version of a dual in-line memory module (DIMM).It is
the type of the memory module can be used in laptop.

47. Which is the memory packaging suitable for a sub-note
book system?

Micro DIMM

48. What is ECC/EPP?
EPP/ECP (Enhanced Parallel Port/Enhanced Capability Port.
is a standard signaling method for bi-directional parallel
communication between a computer and peripheral devices
that offers the potential for much higher rates of data transfer
than the original parallel signaling methods. EPP is for
non-printer peripherals. ECP is for printers and scanners.
EPP/ECP is part of IEEE Standard 1284.

49. What is over clocking?
Over clocking is the process of forcing a computer component
to run at a higher clock rate.

50. What is memory bank?
Sets of physical memory modules is referred to as memory
banks. A memory bank serves as a repository for data, allowing
data to be easily entered and retrieved.
51. What we need to consider before connecting a memory to
the system?
a. Capacity of the RAM required
b. Check if installed memory is supported by motherboard and
processor
c. Form factor of the RAM
d. Type of RAM needed
e. Warranty of the RAM
52. What is Upgrading the memory?
Adding a memory module to the existing bank on the available
slot or replacing the previous one with the increased memory
size is also called upgrading memory. This will surely increase
the performance of the computer.
53. What is BIOS beep code? What it does mean?
BIOS beep codes are the signs of different issues of the
computer. The beep code may vary depends on the

manufacture of BIOS. For example in case of Award BIOS the
beep code will be,
1 long beep- shows memory problem
1 long beep and 2 short beeps- failure of DRAM parity
1 log beep and 3 short beeps- signifies Video error
Continuous beep- signifies failure in memory or Video
memory.
54. What are Solid State Drive means?
A solid-state drive (SSD), sometimes called a solid-state disk
or electronic disk, is a data storage device that uses solid-state
memory to store data. SSDs use microchips which retain data
in non-volatile memory chips and contain no moving parts.
Compared to electromechanical HDDs, SSDs are typically less
susceptible to physical shock, are silent, have lower access time
and latency, but are more expensive per gigabyte (GB).
55. What is RDRAM?
Short for RAMBUS DRAM, a type of memory (DRAM.
developed by Rambus, Inc.
56. What is SIMM? Is it is using now?
Acronym for Single In line Memory Module, a small circuit
board that can hold a group of memory chips. Typically,
SIMMs hold up to eight (on Macintoshes. or nine (on PCs.
RAM chips. On PCs, the ninth chip is often used for parity
error checking. Unlike memory chips, SIMMs are measured in
bytes rather than bits.
Now a days this memory module is not used.
57. Why do we call motherboard a motherboard?
Motherboard is the basic integrated board of the computer on
which all other components are connected. So that usually we
call motherboard a “motherboard”.
58. What is motherboard? What are the different types of it?
Motherboard is the basic integrated board of the computer on
which all other components are connected. This is classified

mainly into three Desktop, Laptop and Server motherboard.
59. What is the difference between integrated and
non-integrated motherboard?
In integrated motherboard all of the external ports will be
present. But in case of non-integrated motherboard only some
important ports will be available instead of all. The
non-integrated motherboard is an old type of motherboard
which now a day’s not commonly available.
60. How a server motherboard different from a desktop?
A server motherboard is different from a desktop in features
and performance. The number of processor support, RAM
slots ,Expansion card slots etc…are more. For example the
Intel® Server Board S5000PSL has the performance and
features for growing businesses demand. It provides excellent
data protection, and advanced data management. It support
64-bit Multi-Core Intel® Xeon® processor. Eight fully
buffered 533/667 MHz DIMMs. Up to six SATA 3Gb/s ports.
61. What is form factor of motherboard?
The form factor of a motherboard determines the
specifications for its general shape and size. It also specifies
what type of case and power supply will be supported, the
placement of mounting holes, and the physical layout and
organization of the board. Form factor is especially important
if you build your own computer systems and need to ensure
that you purchase the correct case and components.
62. What is ATX? How it is different from AT? Which is using
now?
AT is a short for advanced technology, the AT is an IBM PC
model introduced in 1984. It includes an Intel 80286
microprocessor, a 1.2MB floppy drive, and an 84-key AT
keyboard. The ATX form factor specified changes to the
motherboard, along with the case and power supply. Some of
the design specification improvements of the ATX form factor
included a single 20-pin connector for the power supply, a

power supply to blow air into the case instead of out for better
air flow, less overlap between the motherboard and drive bays,
and integrated I/O Port connectors soldered directly onto the
motherboard. The ATX form factor was an overall better
design for upgrading.
63. What is the need of expansion slot in motherboard?
Alternatively referred to as an expansion port, an expansion
slot is a slot located inside a computer on the motherboard or
riser board that allows additional boards to be connected to it.
64. What is PCI slot? How is different from PCI Express
(PCI-E)?
Short for PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT, a
local bus standard developed by Intel Corporation. PCI
Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express),
officially abbreviated as PCIe, is a computer expansion card
standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP
bus standards.
65. What is AGP slot? What is its use?
The Accelerated Graphics Port (often shortened to AGP. is a
high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to
a computer’s motherboard, primarily to assist in the
acceleration of 3D computer graphics. Since 2004 AGP has
been progressively phased out in favor of PCI Express (PCIe).
66. What is jumper? What is the need?
A metal bridge that closes an electrical circuit. Typically, a
jumper consists of a plastic plug that fits over a pair of
protruding pins. Jumpers are sometimes used to configure
expansion boards. By placing a jumper plug over a different set
of pins, you can change a board’s parameters.
67. What CMOS and CMOS battery?
Short for complementary metal oxide semiconductor.
Pronounced see-moss. The CMOS chip holds the date, time,
and system setup parameters. This chip is powered by a 3Volt

CMOS battery.
68. What is chipset?
A number of integrated circuits designed to perform one or
more related functions. This is one of the processing device in
a computer.
69. Explain any three Intel chipset?
a. Intel P55 Express Chipset.-Desktop PC platforms based on
the Intel® P55 Express Chipset combined with the Intel®
Core™ i7-800 series processors and Intel® Core™ i5-700
series processors create intelligent performance for faster
multi-tasking, digital media creation and gaming.
b. Intel HD55 Express Chipset- a new architecture designed to
deliver quality, performance, and industry-leading I/O
technologies on platforms powered by the Intel® Core™
i7-800, Intel® Core™ i5, and Intel® Core™ i3 processors.
c. Intel E7500 Chipset- a volume chipset supports
dual-processor (DP. server systems optimized for the Intel®
Xeon® processor.
70. Which is the chipset needed for Intel Core i7 and Core i5
processors?
Intel Core i7 900-series uses x58 chip set and Core i7
800-series and Core i5 processors runs on P55 chipset.
71. Which is the socket used by Intel Core i7 and i5 processors?
Intel Core i7 900-series uses LGA1366 socket and Core i5
CPUs–all three run on Intel’s latest P55 chipset and LGA1156
socket.
72. What are the motherboard manufacturing companies?
Intel, Gigabyte, ASUS, Mercury, HP, Acer, Biostar, Compaq,
Digital, IBM, AMI.
73. Before upgrading/replacing a motherboard what you need
to consider?
a. Power Connectors
b. Memory Support
c. Hard Disk Support
d. System Case
74. Can you upgrade motherboard?

Yes
75. One system is not starting, but the fan is working. What is
the problem?
76. What is Intel LGA 1155 Socket?
LGA 1155, also called Socket H2, is an Intel microprocessor
compatible socket which supports Intel Sandy Bridge and the
up-coming Ivy Bridge microprocessors.LGA 1155 is designed
as a replacement for the LGA 1156 (known as Socket H).
77. What is power supply unit?
A power supply unit (PSU. supplies direct current (DC. power
to the other components in a computer. It converts generalpurpose
alternating current (AC. electric power from the
mains to low-voltage (for a desktop computer: 12 V, 5 V, 5VSB,
3V3, -5 V, and -12 V. DC power for the internal components of
the computer.
78. What are the different types of Form Factors of Power
Supply?
AT , ATX, Flex ATX, Micro ATX etc…
79. What is NLX?
NLX (New Low Profile Extended. was a form factor proposed
by Intel and developed jointly with IBM, DEC.
80. What is Switching Mode Power Supply?
A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power
supply, SMPS, or simply switcher. is an electronic power
supply that incorporates a switching regulator in order to be
highly efficient in the conversion of electrical power. Like other
types of power supplies, an SMPS transfer power from a
source like the electrical power grid to a load (e.g., a personal
computer. while converting voltage and current
characteristics. An SMPS is usually employed to efficiently
provide a regulated output voltage, typically at a level different
from the input voltage.
81. What is the use of Molex Power connector?
Molex is a four pin power connector found in SMPS. It is used
to supply power to HDD, CD Drive, DVD Drive etc…
82. What is Berg (mini Molex. connector is used to….

To provide power to Floppy Disk Drive.
83. What are the different color cables found in Molex
connector? What is the Power of it.
-12V –Blue, -5V –White, 0V –Black, +3.3V –Orange, +5V
–Red, +12V –Yellow.
84. What are the methods used in a system for cooling?
a. Large System Case
b. Arrangement of Internal Components
c. Keeping the System Clean.
d. Proper Working of the System Case Fan.
85. Power supply fan is not working and it emits a lot of sound.
What will the probable cause?
Most of the time this issue arises due to lots of dust is
accumulated on the fan motor.
86. What is the capacity of a Floppy Disk?
1.44MB
87. Which is the medium used in a floppy for storing data?
Magnetic Media.
88. What is write protected notch in a floppy? What is its use?
This is a switch used to eliminate the accidental deletion of
data from the floppy.
89. How many tracts and sectors found in a normal floppy
dick?
80 tracks and 18 sectors.
90. Which is the file system of a floppy disk?
FAT
91. How can you format a floppy? What is happening if you do
so?
Insert the floppy to the system and open my computer. There
we can find the icon. Just right click and select format option.

Otherwise we can use format command . Formatting a floppy
will creates sectors and tracks on the floppy.
92. System is not showing floppy disk drive icon in
Mycomputer.What will the probable cause?
The device is not detected or disabled.
93. I have inserted a new floppy disk into my drive. The data
can be read. But not able to make modifications. Why?
The disk may be in write protected mode.
94. What is HDD? What are the different types available in the
market now?
A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive or hard disk. is a
non-volatile, random access digital magnetic data storage
device. It is the secondary storage media. There are different
types of hard disk, based on the the intefaces they used we can
classify them as IDE, SATA, SCSI etc…
95. What is SATA?
Serial ATA (SATA or Serial Advanced Technology Attachment.
is a computer bus interface for connecting host bus adapters to
mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical
drives. Serial ATA was designed to replace the older parallel
ATA (PATA. standard (often called by the old name IDE),
offering several advantages over the older interface: reduced
cable size and cost (7 conductors instead of 40), native hot
swapping, faster data transfer through higher signalling rates,
and more efficient transfer through an (optional. I/O queuing
protocol.
96. In Speed how SATA is different from IDE?
SATA- Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA. is high
speed serial interface designed to replace IDE and EIDE drive
standard SATA has a seven pin connector. SATA transfer
speed of data up to 600 MB per second. Now a day use SATA.
IDE- Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE. it has a 40/80 pins

connector. IDE transfer speed of data up to 100/133 MB per
second few time ago mostly use IDE.
97. What is eSATA?
External Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or eSATA is
an external interface for SATA technologies. eSATA cables are
narrow and can be up to 6.56 feet (2 meters. in length. eSATA
requires its own power connector. It is still an excellent choice
for external disk storage.
98. What is SCSI? Is the SCSI Hard Disk is needed for a home
purpose?
SCSI is Small Computer System Interface , is a type of
interface used for computer components such as hard drives,
optical drives, scanners and tape drives. SCSI is a faster, more
robust technology than IDE amd SATA, and has traditionally
been utilized in servers. Aside from speed, another great
advantage over IDE and SATA is that the SCSI card can
connect 15 or more devices in a daisy chain. The controller
assigns each device its own SCSI ID, allowing for great
flexibility towards expanding any system. It is more costly. It is
not needed for a home purpose.
99. Is there is USB HDD? If yes what is the speed?
Yes. If your HDD is based on USB 3.0 it can offer a maximum
transmission speed of up to 5 Gbit/s (640 MB/s), which is over
10 times faster than USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/s, or 60 MB/s).
100. What is IEEE 1394 Interface?
The IEEE 1394 interface is a serial bus interface standard for
high-speed communications. The interface is also known by
the brand names of FireWire (Apple), i.LINK (Sony), and Lynx
(Texas Instruments). IEEE 1394 replaced parallel SCSI in
many applications, because of lower implementation costs and
a simplified, more adaptable cabling system. The original
release of IEEE 1394-1995 specified what is now known as
FireWire 400. It can transfer data between devices at 100,
200, or 400 Mbit/s.

Original link to the article is here:

 

Longmont Boulder Computer Dictionary of PC Repair Networking Definitions

Longmont/Boulder Computer Repair Dictionary of PC Networking definitions

Below is a Dictionary explanation of Computer terms.
(from mcgraw hill)

Access. To call up information out of storage.

Random access. A technique that permits stored information to be directly retrieved, regardless of

its location on the storage medium.

Sequential access. A technique for retrieving stored information that requires a sequential search

through one item after another on the storage medium.

Access time. The amount of time it takes for requested information to be delivered from disks and memory.

Active matrix display. A type of monitor typically used on laptop or portable computers; provides a

brighter, more readable display than older LCD equipment.

Adapter. A circuit board that plugs into a computer and gives it additional capabilities. (See also

Circuit board.)

  1. See Artificial intelligence.

Algorithm. A step-by-step procedure designed to solve a problem or achieve an objective.

Alpha testing. First-stage testing of computer products, typically done in house by the developer. (See

also Beta testing; Gamma testing.)

Alphanumeric. Consisting of letters, numbers, and symbols.

Antivirus software. A program designed to look for and destroy viruses that may infect the memory

of a computer or files stored on a computer.

Applet. A small application, that is, a program designed to perform a simple task. An applet is usually

embedded within a larger program or downloaded from the Internet when needed.

Application (or app). A program designed to perform information processing tasks for a specific purpose

or activity (for example, desktop publishing and database management). (See also Applet; Killer app

Archive. A file compressed for more efficient use of storage space. The compression of files may be

accomplished by means of such programs as Stufflt.

Artificial intelligence (AI). Computer systems that attempt to imitate human processes for analyzing

and solving problems.

Ascending sort. Sorting records from A to Z or 0 to 9. (See also Descending sort.)

ASCII (pronounced as-kee). An acronym derived from American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

ASCII is a standard 7-bit code that represents 128 characters. The use of this standard code

permits computers made by different manufacturers to communicate with one another.

B, b. B is the abbreviation of byte; b is the abbreviation of bit.

Background printing. The ability of a computer to print a document while other work is being done on

the keyboard and the display screen at the same time.

Backup. Storage of duplicate files on disks, diskettes, or some other form of magnetic medium (such

as tapes) as a safety measure in case the original medium is damaged or lost. (One word as a noun or an

adjective: backup procedures; two words as a verb: back up your hard disk.)

Bacn. An e-mail message that might be considered spam except for the fact that the recipient has

elected to receive it. Bacn (pronounced bacon) has been described as “e-mail you want but not right now.”

Newsletters, alerts, and automated reminders are considered examples of bacn.

Bandwidth. The volume of information that a network can handle (usually expressed in bits per

second). The greater the bandwidth, the more quickly data can be downloaded from the Internet or

moved from a network to a user’s computer. The term bandwidth is now also used to refer to a person’s

attention span (as in “Burt is a low-bandwidth kind of guy”) or a person’s ability to handle an assignment

(as in “Sally lacks the bandwidth to do this job”). The question “How’s your bandwidth?” means

“Are you busy?”

Basic Input/Output System (BIOS). A set of programs stored in read-only memory (ROM) on IBM or

IBM-compatible computers. These programs control the disk drives, the keyboard, and the display

screen, and they handle start-up operations.

BBS. See Bulletin board system.

Beta testing. Second-stage testing of computer products, typically done by potential customers and

outside experts to identify problems that need to be fixed before the product can be released for sale. (See

also Alpha testing; Gamma Testing.)

Binary code. The language used by computers in which data and instructions are represented by a

series of 1s and 0s.

Binary numbering system. A numbering system in which all numbers are represented by various combinations

of the digits 0 and 1.

BIOS. See Basic Input/Output System.

Bit (b). An acronym derived from binary digit. The smallest unit of information that can be recognized

by a computer. Bits are combined to represent characters. (See also Byte.)

Bitmap. A method of storing a graphic image as a set of bits in a computer’s memory. To display the

image on the screen, the computer converts the bits into pixels.

Bits per second (bps). A measurement that describes the speed of data transmission between two

pieces of equipment. (See also Transfer rate.)

BlackBerry. A wireless palmtop computer that is especially helpful to business travelers. It permits

users to send and receive e-mail and view other documents that they have on file. (See also Wi-Fi.)

Blawg. See Blog.

Bloatware. A program that uses an excessive amount of disk space and memory.

Block. A segment of text that is selected so that it can be moved to another location or processed in

some other way. (See also Block delete; Block move; Cut and paste.)

Block delete. A command to delete (or erase) a segment of text.

Block move. A command to reproduce a segment of text in another place and at the same time erase it

from its original position. (See also Cut and paste.)

Block protect. A command to prevent a page break from occurring within a block of text (for example,

a table). (See also Orphan protection; Widow protection.)

Blog. A blog (short for Web log) is an online diary in which an individual records and publishes his or her

thoughts on one or more subjects. A blog devoted to legal matters is known as a blawg.

Blogger. Someone who creates and maintains an online diary.

Blogosphere. The complete set of blogs on the Internet.

Blook. A blook is a blog that has been turned into a book or an online book that is published on a blog.

Bluetooth. A protocol that permits a wireless exchange of information between computers, cell

phones, and other electronic devices within a radius of about 30 feet.

Board. See Circuit board.

Boilerplate. Standard wording (for example, sentences or paragraphs in form letters or clauses in legal

documents) that is held in storage. When needed, it can be used as is, with minor modification, or in combination

with new material to produce tailor-made documents.

Bookmark list. See Favorites.

Boot (short for bootstrap). To start a computer and load the operating system to prepare the computer

to execute an application.

Bozo filter. A program that screens out unwanted e-mail or other messages from individuals or organizations

you no longer want to hear from.

bps. See Bits per second.

Bricks-and-clicks. Refers to a traditional business with a Web site. (See also Clicks-to-bricks.)

Bricks-and-mortar. Refers to a traditional business that sells merchandise only in stores. (See also

Clicks-and-mortar.)

Brochureware. A product that is being actively marketed, even though the product is not yet (and may

never be) ready for sale. (See also Vaporware.)

Browser. See Web browser.

B2B. Business-to-business (online transactions).

B2C. Business-to-consumer (online transactions).

B2G. Business-to-government (online transactions).

Buffer. A holding area in memory that stores information temporarily. Also called cache.

Bug. A software defect that causes a program to malfunction or cease to operate. Some writers now use

bug to refer to hardware problems as well. (See also Debugging; Glitch.)

Bulletin board system (BBS). An online information system, usually set up by an individual (called a

system operator, or SYSOP) on a nonprofit basis for the enjoyment of other individuals with similar interests.

(See also Internet.)

Bundled software. Software that is sold along with a computer system; several software programs

that are packaged together (also called software suites).

Burn. To record information on a disc such as a CD-R, a CD-RW, a DVD-R, or a DVD-RW.

Bus. A pathway along which electronic signals travel between the components of a computer system.

Button bar. See Toolbar.

Byte (B). An acronym for binary term. The sequence of bits that represents a character. Each byte has

8 bits.

Cache. See Buffer.

Cancelbot (from cancel robot]. A program that detects spamming in newsgroups and automatically

issues a cancel command. (See also Ham.)

Card. See Circuit board; Adapter.

Carpal tunnel syndrome. A wrist or hand injury caused by using a keyboard for long periods of time.

A type of repetitive strain injury (RSI). (See also Mouse elbow.)

Cathode-ray tube (CRT). See Display screen.

CD-R. Compact disc-recordable.

CD-ROM (pronounced cee-dee-rom). An acronym derived from compact disc-read-only memory. A form

of optical storage. One compact disc can hold up to 250,000 text pages; it can also be used to store

graphics, sound, and video. (See also DVD-ROM.)

CD-RW. Compact disc-rewritable.

Cell. A box or rectangle within a table or spreadsheet where a column and a row intersect; an area in

which information can be entered in the form of text or figures.

Central processing unit (CPU). The brains of an information processing system; the processing component

that controls the interpretation and execution of instructions. (See also Motherboard.)

Character. A single letter, figure, punctuation mark, or symbol produced by a keystroke on a computer.

Each character is represented by a byte.

Character set. The complete set of characters—alphabetic, numeric, and symbolic—displayable on a

computer. (see also ASCII.)

Character string. A specified sequence of typed characters, usually representing a word or phrase. A

character string is often used to locate a particular word or phrase wherever it appears in a document so

that it can be automatically replaced with another word or phrase. If a person’s name has been consistently

misspelled or a date appears incorrectly in several places, the error can be easily corrected. (See

also Search and replace.)

Characters per inch (cpi). The number of characters in a fixed-pitch font that will fit within 1 inch.

Characters per second (cps). The number of characters printed in 1 second; a measurement frequently

used to describe the speed of a printer.

Chat. A method of communication in which people type text messages to each other, thereby holding a

conversation over a network such as the Internet. (See also Newsgroup.)

Check box. A small box that appears onscreen alongside each option displayed in a dialog box. When

an option is selected, an X or a check mark appears inside the box.

Chip. An integrated circuit used in computers.

Chip jewelry. An obsolete computer.

Circuit board. A board or card that carries the necessary electronic components for a particular

computer function (for example, memory). The circuit boards that come with the original equipment perform

the standard functions identified with that type of equipment. Additional circuit boards expand the

kinds of functions that the equipment can perform. Also called a board, a card, or an expansion board.

Clear. A command to erase information.

Click. To quickly press and release a mouse button once while the cursor (mouse pointer) is positioned

over a specific item on the screen. (See also Double-click.)

Clicks-and-mortar. Refers to a business that sells merchandise online as well as in stores. (See also

Bricks-and-mortar.)

Clicks-to-bricks. Refers to an Internet company that opens stores. (See also Bricks-and-clicks.)

Client/server computing. A network of computers that consists of a file server (a computer that runs

a database management system) and individual clients (computers that request and process data

obtained from the file server).

Clipboard. A holding area in memory where information that has been copied or cut (text, graphics,

sound, or video) can be stored until the information is inserted elsewhere. (See also Copy; Cut; Cut and

paste.)

Column. A vertical block of cells in a table or spreadsheet. (See also Row.)

Command. An instruction that causes a program or computer to perform a function. A command may

be given by means of a special keystroke (or series of keystrokes), or the command may be chosen from

a menu.

Commercial online service. See Internet service provider.

Compatibility. The ability of one type of computer, device, data file, or program to share information or

to communicate with another. (See also ASCII.)

Computer. An electronic device that is capable of (1) accepting, storing, and logically manipulating data

or text that is input and (2) processing and producing output (results or decisions) on the basis of stored

programs of instructions. Some computers are also capable of processing graphics, video, and voice

input. Most computers include a keyboard for text entry, a central processing unit, one or more disk

drives, a display screen, and a printer—components referred to as hardware.

Control menu. An onscreen Windows element that appears in a box in the upper left corner of a window.

The control menu allows the user the option of adjusting the size of the window, closing or reopening

the window, or switching to another window.

Cookie. A small text file that a Web server stores on a user’s hard drive when the user visits certain

Web sites. A cookie contains all the information that a user has to submit on a first visit to a particular

Web site in order to gain access. When a user revisits that Web site, the cookie makes it unnecessary for

the user to enter the same information all over again. The positive aspect of cookies is that they make it

possible for users to take advantage of the convenient “shopping cart” feature of many Web sites. Unfortunately,

cookies also make it possible for marketing organizations to monitor users’ browsing patterns;

users then find themselves the targets of custom-tailored marketing campaigns.

Copy. To reproduce information elsewhere. The original information remains in place. (See also Cut.)

cpi. See Characters per inch.

cps. See Characters per second.

CPU. See Central processing unit.

Cracker. The preferred term (rather than hacker) used to refer to a computer criminal who penetrates

a computer to steal information or damage the program in some way.

Crash. A malfunction in hardware or software that keeps a computer from functioning. (See also Bug;

Glitch.)

CRT. Cathode-ray tube. (See also Display screen.)

Cursor. A special character (usually a blinking underline, dot, or vertical line) that indicates where the

next typed character will appear on the display screen. Also known as the mouse pointer (arrow) or

I-beam pointer. Microsoft Word refers to the cursor as the insertion point. (See also Prompt.)

Cursor positioning. The movement of the cursor on the display screen. Most computers have four

keys to control up, down, left, and right movement. Many computers also permit the use of a mouse to

position the cursor.

Cut. To remove text from its original location and place it on a clipboard. (See also Copy; Paste.)

Cut and paste. To move a block of text from one place to another.

Cyberspace. A realistic simulation of a three-dimensional world created by a computer system; also

referred to as virtual reality. Now commonly used to refer to the world of the Internet as a whole.

Cybersquatting. Registering a potentially valuable Internet address in the hope of selling it at a profit

later on to an organization for which this address would be ideal.

Cybrarian. The electronic equivalent of a librarian. A person who makes a career of online research and

data retrieval.

Data. Information consisting of letters, numbers, symbols, sound, or images—in a form that can be processed

by a computer.

Data compression. A procedure for reducing the volume of data so as to shorten the time needed to

transfer the data or to reduce the amount of space needed to store the data.

Database. A stored collection of information.

Database management system (DBMS). The software needed to establish and maintain a database

and manage the-stored information.

DDE. See Dynamic data exchange.

Dead-tree edition. The paper version of a publication available online.

Debugging. Locating and eliminating defects in a program. (See also Bug.)

Decimal tab. A type of tab that aligns columns of figures on the decimal point.

Default settings. The preestablished settings (for margins, font, type size, tab stops, and so on) that a

program will follow unless the user changes them.

Delete. A command to erase information in storage.

Denial of service (DoS) attack. A malicious act intended to shut down a Web site or a network by

flooding it with too much information. Users who attempt to visit the site will be denied access.

Descending sort. Sorting records from Z to A or 9 to 0. (See also Ascending sort.)

Desktop. The electronic work area on a display screen.

Desktop computer. A microcomputer that is bigger than a laptop.

Desktop publishing (DTP). A system that processes the text and graphics and, by means of page

layout software and a laser printer, produces high-quality pages suitable for printing or in-house

reproduction.

Dialog box. A message box on the screen that supplies information to—or requests information from—

the user.

Dictionary. A program used to check the spelling of each word entered in the computer.

Digerati. A term referring to the elite group of intellectuals in the computer world (in the same way that

literati refers to the elite group of intellectuals in the literary world).

Directory. A list of the files stored on a disk.

Disc. A nonmagnetic storage medium that is used in conjunction with optical technology. (See also

CD-ROM.)

Disk. A random-access, magnetically coated storage medium used to store and retrieve information.

(See also Diskette; Hard disk.)

Disk drive. The component of a computer into which a disk is inserted so that it can be read or written on.

Disk operating system. See DOS.

Diskette. A small, nonrigid disk with limited storage capacity. Also known as a floppy disk.

Display screen. A device similar to a television screen and used on a computer to display text and

graphics. Also called a video display terminal (VDT) or a monitor.

Distributed processing system. A form of a local area network in which each user has a fully functional

computer but all users can share data and application software. The data and software are distributed

among the linked computers and not stored in one central computer.

DNS. Domain name system.

Document. Any printed business communication—for example, a letter, memo, report, table, or form.

(See also File.)

Documentation. The manuals or guides distributed with hardware or software.

Domain. Typically, a three-letter element in a Web address or an e-mail address. The domain—

commonly referred to as the zone—indicates the type of organization that owns the computer being identified

in the address. For example, .com signifies a commercial organization; .edu signifies an educational

institution. (See ¶1508b for a list of the most common domains.)

DOS (pronounced dahs or doss). An acronym derived from disk operating system. The term refers to

a program that allows the computer to manage the storage of information on disks and controls other

aspects of a computer’s operation.

DoS (pronounced dee-oh-ess). See Denial of service attack. (Note the differences in spelling and pronunciation

between DOS and DoS.)

Dot. The period symbol used in e-mail and Web addresses. Always referred to as a dot (never as a

period). Thus the domain name aol.com would be pronounced ay-oh-ell-dot-com. Internet surfers who

spend a lot of time in the .com domain are sometimes referred to as dot communists.

Dot-com. An organization that sells its products or services on a Web site (with a URL endng in .com).

A dot-com that fails to stay in business is referred to as a dot-bomb.

Dot matrix printer. A printer that uses pins to produce characters made up of small dots. This kind of

printer is generally used by organizations that want to produce form letters or mailing labels economically.

Double-click. To quickly press and release a mouse button twice while the cursor (mouse pointer) is

positioned over a specific item on the screen. (See also Click.) The expression “Double-click on that”

means “That’s really quite good.”

Download. To transfer information to the user’s computer from another computer.

Drag-and-drop editing. A software feature that allows the user to (1) highlight text to be moved and

(2) use a mouse to drag the text to a new location.

DRAM. Dynamic random access memory.

Drop-down menu. See Menu.

DSL. Digital subscriber line. DSL is a high-bandwidth method of connecting to the Internet by means

of telephone lines.

DTP. See Desktop publishing.

Duplexing. A procedure that permits two computers to transmit data to each other simultaneously.

DVD. Digital video disc or digital versatile disc.

DVD-E. Digital video disc-erasable.

DVD-R. Digital video disc-recordable.

DVD-RAM. Digital video disc–random-access memory.

DVD-ROM. Digital video disc–read-only memory.

DVD-RW. Digital video disc–read/write.

Dynamic data exchange (DDE). A technology that permits the user to transfer or paste data from one

application (for example, a spreadsheet) to another (for example, a report). Because of the dynamic link

created by this technology, any change in the data in the original application will be automatically

reflected in the data copied in the second application. (See also Object linking and embedding.)

Easter egg. An unexpected image or message that pops up on the display screen when the user innocently

enters a secret combination of keystrokes. Programmers playfully code Easter eggs into software and

operating systems as a way of surprising and amusing users engaged in more serious tasks.

E-book. A small reading device that displays downloaded digital text.

Editing. The process of changing information by inserting, deleting, replacing, rearranging, and reformatting.

Also known as changing or customizing.

Ellipsis marks. Three spaced dots (. . .) that appear as part of a menu option. Ellipsis marks indicate

that a dialog box will appear if that option is selected.

E-mail (short for electronic mail). The term e-mail refers to the transfer of messages or documents

between users connected by an electronic network. The term is also used to refer to the message that is

being transmitted in this way. The original form—E-mail—is rarely seen except at the beginning of a sentence,

and industry professionals now commonly write the word without a hyphen—email. One wit has

suggested replacing the term e-mail with e-pistle.

Emoticon. See Smiley.

Encryption. Coding confidential data so that only a user with the right password can read the data.

Enter. To input data into memory. (See also Type.) Also the name of a key on a computer keyboard.

Escape key. A key that permits the user to leave one segment of a program and move to another.

Ethernet. A type of computer network.

Ethernet card. A circuit board that allows a computer to be connected to a network by cable.

Execute. To perform an action specified by the user or the program.

Expansion board. See Circuit board.

Expert system. See Artificial intelligence.

Export. To save information from one computer or program to another.

Extranet. A technology that permits users of one organization’s intranet to enter portions of another

organization’s intranet in order to conduct business transactions or collaborate on joint projects.

E-zine. A magazine published in an electronic format. Also called Webzine.

Face time. Time spent dealing with someone face to face (as opposed to time spent communicating

electronically). Sometimes referred to as facemail. (See also f2f.)

FAQ. Frequently asked question. Pronounced as a word (to rhyme with pack) or as separate letters.

Favorites. A customized list of a user’s favorite Web sites that permits the user to access a particular

Web site with a single command. Also referred to as a bookmark list or a hot list.

 

Fax (n.). A shortened form of the word facsimile. A copy of a document transmitted electronically from

one machine to another.

Fax (v.). To transmit a copy of a document electronically.

Fax modem. A device built into or attached to a computer that serves as a facsimile machine and a

modem.

Field. A group of related characters treated as a unit (such as a name); also, the area reserved for the

entry of a specified piece of information.

File. A collection of information stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer. Every file

must have its own distinctive name. (See also File name.)

File name. The name assigned to a file stored on a disk.

File transfer protocol (FTP). A set of guidelines or standards that establish the format in which files

can be transmitted from one computer to another.

Firewall. A security system usually consisting of hardware and software that prevents unauthorized

persons from accessing certain parts of a program, database, or network.

Fixed-pitch font. A typeface such as Courier in which each character has exactly the same width

(like this). Also referred to as a monospace font.

Flame (n.). An inflammatory e-mail message; one deliberately designed to insult and provoke the recipient.

(See also Rave.)

Flame (v.). To send an inflammatory message.

Flat-panel display. A type of desktop computer monitor that consists of an LCD in a thin case. A flatpanel

display has a much smaller footprint than the traditional CRT.

Floppy disk. See Diskette.

Folder. A storage area on a disk used to organize files.

Font. A typeface of a certain size and style. Includes all letters of the alphabet, figures, symbols, and

punctuation marks. (See also Monospace font; Proportional font; ¶1305d for samples.)

Footer. Repetitive information that appears at the bottom (the foot) of every page of a document. A page

number is a common footer. (See also Header.)

Footnote feature. The ability of a program to automatically position footnotes on the same page as the

text they refer to. If the text is moved to another page, any related footnotes will also be transferred to

that page.

Footprint. The amount of space a computer occupies on a flat surface.

Forelash. Negative reactions to a technology not yet in existence but excessively promoted in advance.

Format. The physical specifications that affect the appearance and arrangement of a document—for

example, margins, spacing, and font.

Forms mode. The ability of a program to store the format of a blank document or form so that it can

later be viewed on the display screen and completed by the user. Once a fill-in has been entered, the

cursor automatically advances to the beginning of the next area to be filled in. (See also Style sheet;

Template.)

Forum. See Newsgroup.

Freenet. A local network that offers free (or low-cost) access to host computers located in libraries

and to other public-interest groups in the community. A freenet may also offer limited access to the

Internet.

Freeware. Copyrighted software that is available for use without charge. (See also Shareware.)

f2f. Communicating face to face.

FTP. See File transfer protocol.

Function keys. Keys on a keyboard (for example, F1) that give special commands to the computer

for example, to set margins or tabs.

G or GB. See Gigabyte.

Gamma testing. Third-stage testing of computer products, typically done just before the products are

released for sale. (See also Alpha testing; Beta testing.)

Gateway. A machine that links two networks using different protocols.

Gigabyte. A measurement of the storage capacity of a device. One gigabyte represents 1024

megabytes. This term may be abbreviated as G or GB; however, GB is the clearer abbreviation since G

also stands for the metric prefix giga (meaning 1 billion). A gigabyte is often referred to as a “gig.”

Gigahertz (GHz). A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit. One gigahertz

is equal to 1 billion cycles per second.

GIGO. Garbage in, garbage out. In other words, your computer output is only as good as your computer

input.

Glitch. A hardware problem that causes a computer to malfunction or crash. (See Bug.)

Global. Describing any function that can be performed on an entire document without requiring individual

commands for each use. For example, a global search-and-replace command will instruct the computer

to locate a particular word or phrase and replace it with a different word or phrase wherever the

original form occurs in the document.

Gopher. A protocol used for locating and transferring information on the Internet. The use of Gopher

has diminished as the Web’s hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) has become the dominant protocol.

Graphical user interface (GUI). A visual computer environment that permits the user to click on icons

or select options from a menu.

Graphics. Pictures or images presented or stored using a computer.

Grok. To research and comprehend something in great detail and great depth.

Groupware. Software that lets network users collaborate on a variety of documents.

GUI (pronounced goo-ee). See Graphical user interface.

Hack. To work on an electronic project.

Hacker. A dedicated computer programmer. The term hacker is sometimes used erroneously to refer to

a computer criminal who penetrates and tampers with computer programs or systems. The preferred

term for a computer criminal is cracker

Ham. A legitimate e-mail message that is blocked because it contains one or more keywords associated

with spam messages.

Handheld computer. A portable computer smaller than a notebook computer. Also called a palmtop

computer.

Hard copy. Text or graphics printed on paper; also called a printout. (See also Soft copy.)

Hard disk. A rigid type of magnetic medium that can store large amounts of information.

Hard hyphen. A hyphen that is a permanent character in a word. A word that contains a hard hyphen

will not be divided at this point if the word comes at the end of a line. (See also Soft hyphen.)

Hard page break. A page-ending code or command inserted by the user that cannot be changed by the

program. A hard page break is often used (1) to prevent a table from being divided between two pages

and (2) to signify that a particular section of a document has ended and the following text should start

on a new page.

Hard return. A command used to end a paragraph, end a short line of text, or insert a blank line in the

text. (See also Soft return.)

Hard space. A space inserted between words in a phrase that should remain together (for example, the

word page and the number, month and day, number and unit of measure). The hard space ensures that the

phrase will not be broken at the end of a line.

Hardware. The physical components of a computer: the central processing unit, the display screen,

the keyboard, the disk drive, the modem, the mouse, and the printer. (See also Software.)

Hardwired. Describes something physically built into a system using hardware, instead of being accomplished

by programming.

Header. Repetitive information that appears at the top (the head) of every page of a document. A page

number is a common header. (See also Footer.)

Hit. A single request for information made by a client computer from a Web server. The popularity of a

given Web site is often measured by the number of hits it receives. However, this number can be extremely

misleading, since a particular Web page may contain a number of elements, each one of which

will be counted as a hit when a visitor opens that page. Thus the number of hits recorded for a particular

Web page can be significantly greater than the actual number of visitors to that page.

Home. The upper left corner of the display screen; the starting position of a page or document.

Home page. The main page for a Web site established by an organization or an individual; it usually

serves as the entrance for a series of related pages.

Host computer. A computer that provides information or a service to other computers on the Internet.

Every host computer has its own unique host name.

Hot key. A keyboard shortcut that allows quick access to a command or menu option.

Hot list. See Favorites.

HTML. See Hypertext markup language.

HTTP. See Hypertext transfer protocol.

Hyperlink. An element in a hypertext document that is highlighted by means of underlining or the use

of a different color. When a user clicks the highlighted element, the user is connected with another

element in the same document or another document

Hypermedia. An extension of hypertext that integrates audio, video, and graphics with text.

Hypertext. A technology that links text in one part of a document with related text in another part of

the document or in other documents. A user can quickly find the related text by clicking on the appropriate

keyword, key phrase, icon, or button.

Hypertext markup language (HTML). The formatting language used to establish the appearance of a

Web page.

Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP). The protocol used on the World Wide Web that permits Web

clients (Web browsers) to communicate with Web servers. This protocol allows programmers to embed

hyperlinks in Web documents, using hypertext markup language.

Hyphenation. The ability of a program to automatically hyphenate and divide words that do not fit at

the end of a line. If the text is later revised so that the divided word no longer begins at the right margin,

the hyphen is automatically removed and the word prints solid. (See also Soft hyphen.)

I-beam pointer. A mouse- or keyboard- controlled cursor that looks like a capital I.

Icon. A symbol (such as a picture of a trash can or a file folder) that represents a certain function. When

the user clicks on the icon, the appropriate function is executed. (See also Graphical user interface.)

ICQ (from I seek you). An instant messaging service.

  1. See Instant messaging.

Import. To retrieve any text or other information created by one program (for example, images created

by a graphics program) and transfer it to another program (for example, a spreadsheet program).

Indexing. The ability of a program to accumulate a list of words or phrases that appear in a document

(along with their corresponding page numbers) and to print or display the list in alphabetic order.

Information processing. The coordination of people, equipment, and procedures to handle information,

including the storage, retrieval, distribution, and communication of information. The term information

processing embraces the entire field of processing words, figures, graphics, video, and voice input by

electronic means.

Information Superhighway (or I-way). The Internet. Also referred to as the Infobahn (based on the

German term for its network of highways, the Autobahn).

Ink-jet printer. A nonimpact printer that forms characters by spraying tiny, electrically charged ink

droplets on paper.

Input (n.). Information entered into the computer for processing.

Input (v.). To enter information into the computer. (See also Type; Key.)

Input device. A hardware component (such as a mouse, a keyboard, or a microphone) that lets the

user input information.

Insert. To add information to a file.

Insertion point. See Cursor.

Instant messaging (IM). A chat program that lets people communicate over the Internet in real time.

Integrated circuit. Multiple electronic components combined on a tiny silicon chip. (See also Microprocessor.)
Integrated software. Software that combines in one program a number of functions normally performed

by separate programs.

Interface. The electrical connection that links two pieces of equipment so that they can communicate

with each other. Also, the software that controls the interaction between the hardware and the

user.

Internesia. Forgetting where one obtained a piece of information on the Internet.

Internet (or Net). A system that links existing computer networks into a worldwide network. The

Internet may be accessed by means of commercial online services (such as America Online) and

Internet service providers.

Internet community. A group of individuals with common interests who frequently exchange ideas on

the Internet.

Internet protocol (IP) address. A unique set of numbers that identifies a computer over a network.

Internet service provider (ISP). An organization that provides access to the Internet for a fee. Companies

like America Online are more properly referred to as commercial online services because they offer

many other services in addition to Internet access—for example, news, travel services, and financial and

shopping information.

Internet telephony. Another name for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).

Intranet. A private network established by an organization for the exclusive use of its employees.

Firewalls prevent outsiders from gaining access to an organization’s intranet. (See also Extranet.)

I/O. An abbreviation for input/output.

IP address. See Internet Protocol address.

ISP. See Internet service provider.

Java. A programming language designed for programs or applets used over the Internet.

JPEG. _Joint Photographic Experts Group. A format for storing complex graphics in compressed form.

The file extension. jpeg or .jpg indicates that a particular file uses this format.

Justification. Aligning lines of text at the left margin, the right margin, both margins, or the center. Text

aligned at both margins is considered fully justified. Text aligned only at the left margin is said to have a

ragged right margin. (See also ¶1344g–h.)

K or KB. See Kilobyte.

Kern. To make fine adjustments in the space between any two characters.

Key. To enter characters into the memory of a computer. (Key is being replaced by the word type. See

also Type.)

Keyboard. The device used to enter information into a computer.

Keystroke. The depression of one key on a keyboard.

Keyword. A word or phrase that briefly identifies a document. Keywords serve as the basis for a variety

of computer operations—for example, conducting an online search.

Killer app (short for application). Software that is considered “so great it will blow you away.”
Kilobyte. A measurement of the storage capacity of a device. One kilobyte represents 1024 bytes.

Kilobyte may be abbreviated K or KB; however, KB is the clearer abbreviation since K also stands for the

metric prefix kilo (meaning 1000).

Kluge (pronounced klooj). An expedient (but often inelegant) way to solve a problem when time is of

the essence.

LAN. See Network, local area.

Landscape orientation. The positioning of a page so that information is printed across the long dimension

of the paper. (See also Portrait orientation.)

Language. The characters and procedures used to write programs that a computer is designed to

understand.

Laptop computer. A portable computer. Also known as a notebook computer.

Laser printer. A nonimpact printer that produces sharper text and graphics than any other type of

printer. (See also Dot matrix printer; Ink-jet printer.)

LCD. See Liquid crystal display.

L33t. The term l33t (pronounced leet) is an alphanumeric expression derived from “elite.” This term is

used to describe a person’s prowess in accessing restricted Web sites. (See also W00t.)

Line or paragraph numbering. The ability of a program to automatically number each line or paragraph

sequentially in a document. The line or paragraph numbers can be deleted before the preparation

of the final printout.

Line spacing. The ability of a program to automatically change vertical line spacing (for example, from

double to single to double again).

Linux. A type of open source software. When combined with other components, Linux serves as an

increasingly popular operating system that competes with Microsoft Windows.

Liquid crystal display (LCD). A type of monitor typically used on laptop computers or portable

computers. (See also Active matrix display; Flat-panel display.)

Listserv. Any software that manages a mailing list. The most widely used programs are LISTSERV (as

distinct from the generic terms listserv and listserve), Listproc, and Majordomo.

Load. To transfer information or program instructions into a computer’s memory.

Local area network (LAN). See Network, local area.

Log off or log out (v.). To exit or leave a computer system. (See ¶803f.)

Logoff or logout (n.). The process of exiting a computer system.

Log on or log in (v.). To access a computer system. (See ¶¶802, 803e.) Log onto and log into are not correct.

Logon or login (n.). The process of accessing a computer system.

M or MB. See Megabyte.

Macro. A time-saving feature (like telephone speed dialing) that allows the user to store in memory a

set of keystrokes or commands that will accomplish a certain task.
Macro virus. A type of virus that attaches itself to documents or word processing templates.

Mail merge. The process of taking information from a database and inserting it into a form letter or

other document in order to customize the document for an individual recipient. For example, mail merge

can be used to create the inside address and the salutation for a form letter. (See also Forms mode.)

Mailbomb. A deluge of e-mail messages from one or more sources, deliberately intended to overload the

recipient’s computer and make it crash. A mailbomb is typically sent to punish someone guilty of

spamming or some other serious breach of netiquette.

Mailing list. An e-mail discussion group devoted to one or more specific topics.

Mainframe. A large computer system.

Malware. Software that disrupts normal computer functions or sends a user’s personal data without

the user’s authorization.

Maximize. A command used in a graphical user interface (GUI) that enlarges a window so that it fills

a desktop.

Megabyte. A measurement of the storage capacity of a device. One megabyte represents more than

1 million bytes. Megabyte may be abbreviated M or MB; however, MB is clearer since M also stands for

the metric prefix mega (meaning 1 million). A megabyte is often referred to as a “meg.”

Megahertz (MHz). A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit. One

megahertz is equal to 1 million cycles per second.

Memory. The part of a computer that stores information. (See also Storage.)

Random-access memory (RAM). The temporary memory that allows information to be stored randomly

and accessed quickly and directly (without the need to go through intervening data).

Read-only memory (ROM). The permanent memory of a computer; a set of instructions that has

been built into the computer by the manufacturer and cannot be accessed or changed by the user.

Menu. A list of choices shown on the display screen. For example, a format menu would include such

options as the type style and the type size to be selected. A menu is often referred to as a pull-down menu,

a drop-down menu, or a pop-up menu because it appears onscreen after the user clicks the menu bar or

some other item on the screen.

Menu bar. The bar across the top of the screen or window that displays the names of available menus.

Merge. A command to create one file by combining information that is stored in two different locations.

For example, a computer can merge the text in a form letter with a mailing list to produce a batch of letters

with a different name, address, and salutation on each letter. (See also Mail merge.)

Microcomputer. A small and relatively inexpensive computer, commonly consisting of a display

screen, a keyboard, a central processing unit, one or more disk drives, and a printer, with limited

storage based upon a microprocessor. (See also Desktop computer; Laptop computer.)

Microprocessor. An integrated circuit on a silicon chip that serves as the central processing unit of

a computer.

Middleware. A type of software that connects different applications that were not originally designed

to work together.

Minimize. A command used in a graphical user interface (GUI) that reduces a window to an icon or

a label, usually at the bottom of a desktop.
MIPS. An acronym derived from millions of instructions per second. Used to measure the speed of a

processor.

Modem. An acronym derived from modulator/demodulator. A device that (1) converts digital signals into

tones for transmission over telephone lines and (2) converts the tones back into digital signals at the receiving

end.

Monitor. The display screen of a computer.

Monospace font. See Fixed-pitch font.

Morph (from metamorphosis). To change one image into another by means of digital technology.

Motherboard. The computer’s main circuit board, which contains the central processing unit,

the memory, and expansion slots for additional circuit boards called adapters or cards. (See also

Adapter.)

Mouse. A hand-operated electronic device used to move a cursor or pointer on the display screen.

Mostly used with microcomputers. Referred to in Spanish as el maus. (See also Word of mouse.)

Mouse arrest. To be placed under mouse arrest is to be denied further access to an Internet service

provider or a commercial online service as a result of violating the terms of service.

Mouse elbow. A repetitive strain injury (similar to tennis elbow) that is caused by repeatedly using a

mouse. (See also Carpal tunnel syndrome.)

Mouse potato. A person who sits glued to a computer screen (in the same way that a couch potato sits

glued to a TV screen).

Mousetrapping. Blocking someone’s exit from a Web site.

MS-DOS (pronounced em-ess-dahs or -doss). Derived from Microsoft disk operating system. An operating

system used on the first IBM and IBM-compatible microcomputers.

Multimedia. The use of several types of media (such as text, graphics, animation, sound, and video) in

a document or an application.

Multitasking. The ability of a computer to execute more than one program at a time. The derivative

term “multislacking” means playing games at the computer instead of working.

Net. See Internet.

Netiquette. A set of guidelines for formatting and composing e-mail messages. (See also ¶¶1375–1389.)

Netizen. A “citizen” of the Net; an active participant in the Internet community. Netizens in general are

sometimes referred to as netkind.

Network. A system of interconnected computers. (See also Notwork; Sneakernet.)

Local area networks (LANs) use cable to connect a number of computers within the same location

or in close proximity.

Wide area networks (WANs) use telephone lines or other telecommunications devices to link

computers in widely separated locations.

Internet is a system that links existing networks into a worldwide network.

Newbie. A newcomer to a bulletin board system or some other network facility.
Newsgroup. An electronic discussion group maintained over the Internet or tied into a bulletin board

system. Each newsgroup is typically organized around a specific interest or matter of concern. Also

called a forum.

Newsreader. A program that permits users to read and respond to messages posted on Usenet.

Notebook computer. A portable computer. Also known as a laptop computer.

Notwork. A network that does not live up to its advance billing. Also called a nyetwork.

Number crunching. Processing large amounts of numerical data.

Object linking and embedding (OLE). A process that permits the user to take material (referred to as

an object) from one source and insert (embed) it in another document. If the user subsequently makes

changes in the original material, those changes will be automatically transferred to the second document

as a result of the OLE linking process. (See also Dynamic data exchange.)

OCR. See Optical character reader.

Offline. Refers to the state in which a computer is temporarily or permanently unable to communicate

with another computer (even though it is turned on and capable of performing other functions). The term

offline is also used humorously to refer to “real life.” The expression “Let’s take that offline” means “Let’s

discuss that in private.”

Offscreen. Refers to any computer function that does not produce a display on the screen.

OLE (pronounced oh-lay). See Object linking and embedding.

Online. Refers to the state in which a computer is turned on and ready to communicate with other

computers.

Onscreen. Refers to anything displayed on the screen of a computer.

Open. To transfer a file from a disk into the memory of a computer.

Open source software. Software that makes the underlying source code available to all users at no

charge. Users may make changes and improvements as long as they do not try to sell the software commercially.

Linux is the best example of open source software currently available.

Operating system (OS). Software that manages the internal functions and controls the operations of a

computer.

Optical character reader (OCR). A device that can scan text from hard copy and enter it automatically

into a computer for storage or editing. Also called an optical scanner.

Option button. An onscreen element that allows a user to select one option from a group of items. An

empty circle precedes each option not selected. A dot appears in a circle to signify that the user has

selected that option. Also referred to as a radio button.

Orphan protection. The ability of a program to prevent the first line of a paragraph from printing as the

last line on a page. When the first line of a paragraph does appear as the last line on a page, it is referred

to as an orphan. (See also Widow protection.)

  1. See Operating system.

Outlining. The ability of a program to automatically number and letter items typed in an indented format.

Output. The results of a computer operation.
Output device. A hardware component (such as a monitor, a printer, or a sound speaker) that delivers

the results of computer operations to the user.

Overwriting. Recording and storing information in a specific location on a storage medium that destroys

whatever had been stored there previously.

Page break. A command that tells the printer where to end one page and begin the next. (See also Hard

page break; Soft page break.)

Page numbering. The ability of a program to automatically print page numbers on the pages that make

up an entire document. If the document is revised and the total number of pages changes, the page numbering

is automatically adjusted.

Pagination. The ability of a program to take information and automatically divide it into pages with a

specified number of lines per page. If the information is changed because of the addition, deletion, or rearrangement

of copy, the material will be automatically repaged to maintain the proper page length. (See

also Soft page break.)

Palmtop computer. A portable computer smaller than a notebook (or laptop) computer that fits on the

palm of your hand. Also called a handheld computer.

Papernet. Ordinary mail service. (See also Voicenet.)

Password. A user’s secret identification code, required to access stored material. A procedure intended

to prevent information from being accessed by unauthorized persons.

Paste. A command that transfers information from a clipboard and inserts it in another location. (See

also Cut and paste.)

Patch. A small program that improves an existing piece of software or corrects an error in it.

  1. See Personal computer.

PDA. See Personal digital assistant.

PDF. See Portable Document Format.

Peripheral. A device that extends the capabilities of a computer (for example, a printer).

Personal computer (PC). A microcomputer for personal and office use.

Personal digital assistant (PDA). A palm-sized, handheld computer.

Personal information manager (PIM). A database management system that permits a user to store

and retrieve a wide range of personal information (for example, names, addresses, phone numbers,

appointments, and lists of people to call and things to do).

Phishing. A type of computer fraud that tries to trick users into revealing their passwords and other confidential

information.

Pica. A measurement used for a font; equal to 1/6 inch or 12 points.

PIM. See Personal information manager.

Piracy. The illegal copying of software or other creative works.

Pitch. The number of monospace characters (each with exactly the same width) that will fit in a 1-inch

line of text. (See also Fixed-pitch font.)
Pixel. An acronym derived from picture element. The smallest element (a dot) on a display screen.

Pixels are used to construct images on the screen.

Platform. A term used to define the type of microprocessor and operating system on which a computer

is based.

Plug-and-play. The ability to plug in a peripheral and have it work without difficulty. The term plug-andplay

is now sometimes used to refer to a new employee who can immediately do the job without any preliminary

training. Because of the problems some users have experienced with items so labeled, they refer

instead to plug-and-pray.

POD. Publishing on demand. A process that allows for the printing of individual copies as orders come

in (as distinguished from the traditional method of printing a number of copies on the basis of estimated

sales for the foreseeable future).

Podcasting. Posting audio files online so that they can be downloaded to a portable audio player such

as an MP3 player.

Point. A measurement that indicates the size of a font; 72 points equals 1 inch and 12 points equals 1 pica.

Pointer. An onscreen device that indicates the current position of the mouse.

Pop-up menu. See Menu.

Port. A socket on a computer into which an external device (such as a printer cable) can be plugged.

Portable Document Format (PDF). A format that makes it possible—with the help of Adobe Acrobat—

to view documents that employ different fonts, various types of graphics, and complex layouts.

Portrait orientation. Positioning paper so that information is printed across the short dimension of the

paper. (See also Landscape orientation.)

Posting. A message entered into a network (such as a newsgroup) or on a Web site.

Print preview. A software feature that reduces the pages of a document so that a full page (or two facing

pages) can be seen on the screen before being printed. This feature permits the user to spot and correct

problems in format and page breaks.

Printers. Output devices of various types that produce copy on paper. (See also Dot matrix printer; Inkjet

printer; Laser printer.)

Printout. The paper copy of information produced on a printer.

Program. An established sequence of instructions that tells a computer what to do. The term program

means the same as software.

Programming language. The rules, conventions, and specific commands used to write a computer

program. Most programs must be converted into machine language or binary code so that the instructions

can be performed on a specific computer platform.

Prompt. An onscreen symbol (for example, a cursor) that indicates where to type a command; a message

that indicates what action is to be taken.

Proportional font. A typeface in which the width of each character varies (as in this sentence), so that

the letter I takes much less space than the letter M. (See also Font.)

Protocol. A set of standards that permits computers to exchange information and communicate with

each other.
P2P. Peer-to-peer (network).

Publishing on demand. See POD.

Pull-down menu. See Menu.

Push technology. A process that allows a user to obtain automatic delivery of specified information

from the Internet to the user’s computer—for example, stock market quotes, weather forecasts, and

sports scores.

Radio button. See Option button.

RAM. See Memory, random-access.

Rave. To annoy someone by persistently talking about something. The act of raving is different from

flaming in that flaming is deliberately provocative and even insulting, whereas raving is simply annoying

because it goes on so long.

Read. To transfer information from an external storage medium into internal storage. (See also Storage,

external and internal.)

Record (n.). A collection of all the information pertaining to a particular subject.

Redlining. A word processing feature that allows writers and editors to display (by means of a shaded

panel or some other method) the additions and deletions they have made in a document. Redlining in

drafts of reports, contracts, and manuscripts makes it easy for others to see the changes that have been

made. All redlining is removed from the final version of the document.

Response time. The time a computer takes to execute a command.

Retrieve. To call up information from memory or storage so that it can be processed in some way.

ROM. See Memory, read-only.

Row. A horizontal block of cells in a table or spreadsheet. (See also Column.)

RSI. Repetitive strain injury; sometimes referred to as chiplash. (See also Carpal tunnel syndrome; Mouse

elbow.)

Ruler. A bar (displayed on the screen) that shows the width of the page, the margin settings, the paragraph

indentions, and the tab stops.

Save. To store a program or data on a storage device such as a disk.

Scanner. An input device that can copy a printed page into a computer’s memory, thus doing away with

the need to type the copy. A scanner can also convert artwork and photographs into a digital format and

store these in memory.

Screen. See Display screen.

Screen dump. A printout of what is displayed on the screen.

Screen saver. A program that changes the screen display while the user is away from the computer.

Originally intended to prevent images from becoming etched on a monitor’s screen when that was still a

problem. Now used primarily for esthetic purposes.

Scroll. To move information horizontally or vertically on a display screen so that one can see parts of a

document that is too wide or too deep to fit entirely on one screen.
Scroll bar. An onscreen element that allows a user to scroll by using a mouse.

SCSI (pronounced scuz-zy). See Small computer system interface.

Search and replace. A command that directs the program to locate a character string or information

(text, numbers, or symbols) wherever it occurs in a document and replace this material with new information.

(See also Global.)

Search engine. A free program that helps Web users locate data by means of a keyword or concept.

Among the most popular search engines are Google, Yahoo!, Excite, WebCrawler, and AltaVista.

Server. A computer that delivers data to other computers (clients) linked on the same network.

Shareware. Software that usually may be downloaded and used initially without charge; the author

may subsequently ask for some payment. (Compare with Freeware.)

Shouting. The use of all caps in e-mail. This practice is considered a violation of netiquette and is

actively discouraged.

Shovelware. Mediocre material used to fill up space on a CD-ROM or a Web site.

Sig block. The signature block that automatically appears at the end of every outgoing e-mail message.

Also referred to as a .sig file.

Small computer system interface (SCSI). A type of hardware and software interface for connecting

peripherals such as a disk drive or a CD-ROM.

Smiley. In e-mail messages, a facial expression constructed sideways (for the “lateral-minded”) with

standard characters. Also referred to as an emoticon (emotional icon). For example:

🙂 I’m smiling. >:-( I’m angry. :-J I’m being tongue-in-cheek.

😀 I’m laughing. :-@ I’m screaming. :-+ I’m exhausted—my tongue

🙁 I’m sad. :-& I’m tongue-tied. is hanging out.

:-< I’m very sad. 😡 My lips are sealed. %-) I’ve been staring at the

:’-( I’m crying. #-) I’m feeling no pain. screen too long.

😉 I’m winking. :-O I’m shocked. 8-| What next?

Japanese smileys do not require you to turn your head sideways. For example:

^L^ I’m happy. (>_<) I’m angry. (^_^)/` I’m waving hello.

^o^ I’m laughing out loud. (@_@) I’m stunned. (;_;)/ I’m waving good-bye.

\(^_^)/ I’m joyful. (!_!) I’m shocked. (=_=) I’m sleepy.

Although smileys tend to be quite amusing, many people find them excessively cute. In any case, do not

insert smileys in business correspondence except in informal messages, when you are sure the recipient

will welcome them.

Snail mail. A term employed by e-mail users to refer to regular mail service.

Sneakernet. The procedure for transferring files from one computer to another when the computers are

not connected by an electronic network. (Users remove diskettes or other storage devices from one

computer and carry them on foot to another.)

Soft copy. Information shown on the display screen. (See also Hard copy.)

Soft hyphen. A hyphen that divides a word at the end of a line; considered soft (nonpermanent) because

the hyphen will automatically be deleted if the word moves to another position as a result of a change in

the text. (See also Hard hyphen; Hyphenation.)
Soft page break. A line inserted by the program to show where a page will end. If copy is added or

deleted, the original page break will be replaced with a new soft page break at the appropriate place. (By

contrast, a hard page break will remain fixed, no matter what changes are made in the copy.) (See also

Pagination.)

Soft return. A software feature that automatically breaks text between words at the right margin. The

line ending is considered soft (nonpermanent) because the line ending will change if the user adds or

deletes text. (See also Hard return; Word wrap.)

Software. The instructions that a computer needs to perform various functions. The term software

means the same as program. (See also Hardware.)

Sort. To arrange fields, records, or files in a predetermined sequence.

Spam (n.). The electronic equivalent of junk mail; also called unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE). (See

also Ham.)

Spam (v.). To send an e-mail message to a great number of recipients without regard for their need to

know. A user who spams sometimes receives a mailbomb in return as a form of retaliation.

Spider. An automated program that searches the Internet for new Web sites and indexes their URLs

and content descriptions in a database for examination by a search engine for matches.

Spim. Spam that is delivered by instant messaging (IM Spim).

Spit. Spam that is delivered by Internet telephony (IT).

Split screen. The ability of some programs to display information in two or more different areas on the

screen at the same time.

Spreadsheet. A program that provides a worksheet with rows and columns to be used for calculations

and the preparation of reports.

Spyware. Software that enables a user to track someone’s computer activities without that person’s

consent.

Storage. The memory of a computer.

External storage. A magnetic medium such as a disk, diskette, or tape used to store information;

can be removed from the computer.

Internal storage. An integral component of a computer; cannot be removed.

Store. To place information in memory for later use.

Streaming. The process of sending and temporarily storing large amounts of audio or video information

in small pieces and playing them back on the computer so that there is a continuous flow.

Style sheet. A collection of the user’s formatting decisions regarding font, type size, margins, justification,

paragraph indentions, and the like.

Surfing the Net. Browsing through various Web sites on the Internet in search of interesting things.

Surge protector. A device that protects computer hardware from being damaged by sudden increases

in voltage.

SYSOP (pronounced siss-op). An acronym derived from system operator. A person who operates a

bulletin board system.
Tab grid. A series of preset indentions (usually a half inch apart). If the tabs are reset by the user, the

grid will change to show the new location of the tabs.

Tablet. A computer that accepts handwritten notes entered on the display screen by means of an electronic

pen. The notes are then converted into text.

TCP/IP. See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

Telecommunications. The process of sending and receiving information by means of telephones, satellites,

and other devices.

Telecommuter. An employee who works away from the office (usually at home) and uses a computer

(1) to access needed information on the organization’s intranet and the Internet and (2) to communicate

with other employees, suppliers, and customers or clients.

Teleconferencing. Conducting a conference by using computers, video, and telecommunications to

share sound and images with others at remote sites.

Telnet. A protocol that allows a computer to connect with a host computer on the Internet. The use

of Telnet has diminished as the Web’s hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) has become the dominant

protocol.

Template. A preestablished format for a document, stored in a computer. The template determines the

margins, the type style and size to be used for the text, placement instructions for various elements

(such as the date line), and design specifications for certain items (such as a letterhead). A user can simply

call up the appropriate template, insert text where needed, and then print a final document. The user

can modify the original template or create a new template to satisfy personal preferences.

Terminal. Any device that can transmit or receive electronic information.

Text. Broadly speaking, the material displayed on a screen or printed on paper. Within a given document,

the term refers to the body of the document as distinct from headers, footers, and other elements.

Text entry. The initial act of typing that places text in storage. (See also Type.)

Thread. A series of posted messages that represents an ongoing discussion of a specific topic in a bulletin

board system, a newsgroup, or a Web site.

Toolbar. An onscreen element that offers instant access to commonly used commands. The commands

are represented by icons on a row of buttons at the top of the screen. Also called a button bar.

Touchpad. The device on a laptop computer that takes the place of a mouse.

Touchscreen technology. The technology that permits a user to perform a function simply by touching

the screen in an appropriate spot.

Trackball. An input device in which the user rolls a ball (usually with a thumb) to move the pointer.

Transfer rate. The rate at which data is transmitted between two computers or other electronic

equipment.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). A collection of over 100 protocols that

are used to connect computers and networks.

Treeware. Anything printed on paper.

Trojan horse. A type of computer virus that is hidden within an innocent-looking program.
Type. To enter characters into the memory of a computer. For a number of years the verb type began to

be replaced by the verb key as a way of emphasizing the difference between a computer and a typewriter.

However, the simpler verb type has made a comeback in computer terminology and is now the word commonly

seen in users’ manuals and on display screens.

Typeface. See Font.

Typeover. See Overwriting.

Uniform resource locator (URL). The specific Internet address for a resource such as an individual or

an organization. (See also World Wide Web.)

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS). A battery-powered backup system that provides enough electricity

to a computer during a power outage (or, in most cases, a brownout or power surge) so that the

user can save files before shutting down the computer.

Universal Serial Bus (USB). A common standard for connecting multiple peripherals to a computer

as needed.

Upload. To transfer information from a client computer to a host computer.

UPS. See Uninterruptible power supply.

URL (pronounced you-are-el or erl). See Uniform resource locator.

USB. See Universal Serial Bus.

Usenet (from Users’ Network). A bulletin board system or Internet site that hosts thousands of

newsgroups.

User-friendly. Describes hardware or software that is easy to use. A related phrase, user-obsequious,

describes hardware or software that is so simplistic in design that it is virtually unusable.

Userid (pronounced user-eye-dee). The name a person must use, along with a password, to gain

access to restricted areas on a network.

Vaporware. Software that is being widely advertised, even though it is still in the developmental stage

and has serious problems that may doom its eventual release. The premature marketing of software is

designed to deter prospective customers from buying competitive products already available for sale.

(See also Brochureware.)

Video display terminal (VDT). See Display screen.

Virtual reality. See Cyberspace.

Virus. A piece of computer code designed as a prank or malicious act to spread from one computer to

another by attaching itself to other programs. Some viruses simply cause a humorous message to appear

on the screen. Some cause minor glitches, but others cause serious damage to a computer’s memory or

disks. Some viruses flood an organization’s Web site, interrupting or entirely preventing access to the

organization’s customers. (See also Antivirus software; Denial of service attack.)

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). The transmission of voice communications by means of the

Internet Protocol. VoIP is an inexpensive alternative to long-distance telephone calls.

Voicenet. Ordinary telephone service.

VoIP. See Voice over Internet Protocol.
WAIS (pronounced ways). See Wide-Area Information Server.

WAN. See Network, wide area.

Web. See World Wide Web.

Web browser. Software that permits a user—with a click of a mouse—to locate, display, and download

text, video, audio, and graphics stored in a host computer on the Web. The most common Web browsers

now in use are Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.

Web site. One or more related pages created by an individual or an organization and posted on the World

Wide Web. (See also Home page.)

Webcam. A video camera that sends live images over the Internet to a Web site.

Webcaster. An application that can be custom-tailored to satisfy an individual user’s need for constantly

updated information in specific areas. A Webcaster, when appropriately programmed, will automatically

deliver the needed information to the user’s computer. (See also Push technology.)

Webmaster. The person who maintains a specific Web site and is responsible for what appears there.

Webzine. See E-zine.

Wide-Area Information Server (WAIS). An Internet search system that will locate documents that

contain keywords specified by the user.

Wide area network (WAN). See Network, wide area.

Widow protection. The ability of a program to avoid printing the last line of a paragraph as the first line

on a page. When the last line of a paragraph does appear as the first line on a page, it is referred to as a

widow. (See also Orphan protection.)

Wi-Fi. Wireless fidelity. A process that permits high-speed wireless transmission of data.

Wiki. A procedure that permits a Web site to be continually edited or added to by those who visit the site.

Window. A frame that permits users to view messages they have received or documents they are working

on.

Windowing. The ability of a program to split its display screen into two or more segments so that the

user can view several different documents or perform several different functions simultaneously. (See

also Split screen.)

Windows. A Microsoft operating system used on the vast majority of PCs.

Wizard. An interactive feature within an application that helps a user through each step of a task, such

as creating a customized document or adding hardware. The term wizard is also used to refer to the person

in an organization who can quickly find and fix everyone else’s computer problems.

W00t. The term w00t is an alphanumeric acronym that stands for “we owned the other team.” This term

is typically employed by Internet users to express happiness or joy. (See also L33t.)

Word of mouse. Gossip spread by e-mail.

Word processing. The electronic process of creating, formatting, editing, proofreading, and printing

documents. (See also Information processing.)
Word wrap. A software feature that detects when a word will extend beyond the right margin and

automatically transfers it to the beginning of the next line.

Workstation. A desktop computer that runs applications and serves as an access point in a local area

network. (See also Network.)

World Wide Web. The component of the Internet that combines audio, video, and graphics with text.

Also called the Web or WWW. (WWW is sometimes pronounced triple-dub, to avoid pronouncing each W

separately.)

Worm. A type of computer virus that runs a program to destroy data on a user’s hard drive. Worms

spread by sending copies of themselves to everyone on the user’s list of e-mail addresses.

WWW. See World Wide Web.

WYSIWYG (pronounced wiz-zy-wig). An acronym derived from what you see is what you get. A computer

design standard that lets the user see on the screen how a page will look when it is printed.

Zombie. A computer that has been hijacked by a cracker without the owner’s knowledge and used to

perform malicious tasks on the Internet.

Zone. See Domain.

Help for seniors and handicapped people who have problems accessing their Computer, Tablets, Smart Phones in Longmont, CO

Computer Physicians of Longmont Provides help with teaching, training, tutoring on how to use the computer, smart phone, tablet, and programming accessibility methods to more easily use the devices. For seniors and handicapped people who have problems accessing the computer system.

1. Making the page, fonts, letters, and words bigger to make it easier to read. Adjusting the size of the screen. Configuring the back light, brightness, contrast of the screen. Adding an onscreen magnifying glass to the screen so that they can adjust the screen as large or small as they want.

2. Configuring and adjusting the touch sensitivity of touch screens to more easily use the touch screens.

3. Programming and configuring voice recognition to control the computer by just your voice and to write email, letters by using your voice only.

4. Many seniors and handicapped people cannot move the mouse and double click the mouse buttons effectively because of shaking hands. Steve at Computer Physicians will either customize the mouse to make it easier to use or eliminate the need to use the mouse and using other ways to control the computer.

5. Program and configure the computer/tablet/smart phone for hearing impaired people.

6. Program and configure the computer/tablet/smart phone for people with mobility problems.

7. There are many other program and configuring issues that could also be done to help people with all types of physical limitations.

8. Setting up and teaching how to use the computer/tablet/smart phone to provide video conferencing, send pictures, etc. to keep in touch with loved ones.

9. Using the computer/tablet/smart phone to use as a telephone to call anyone in the world and talk as long as you like for free.